Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Bandara johnsoniAdults are orange yellow with six black dashes above the margin of the vertex and an interrupted line beneath. The posterior margin of the vertex, three stripes on the pronotum, two spots on the scutellum and numerous oval spots on the wings are white. The female pregenital sternite is "narrowed at half its length and produced to a roundedly emargninate posterior margin, which is rather deeply, narrowly incised at the middle to a slightly produced tooth on either side of the incision on the posterior margin" (DeLong 1948). The male plates are convexly narrowed to pointed apexes, together appearing triangular overall. Adults are 4.8-5.2 mm long. (DeLong 1948) For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.Recorded from a single county so far in the Piedmont; the records in the mountains are tentative since they were identified before the 1946 revision of this genus. Likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found in open habitat near mixed hardwood forest edge.
Shellenius balliiA distinctly colored species with characteristic red and dark markings. The head, which is proportionately longer than in other similar Derbids, has a broad red band that extends across the entire length. This band narrows on the sides of the thorax, continuing onto the wings where it is considerably widens up and darkens toward the wing tips; the wing venation in this widened band is the same bright red color as the beginning of the band while the wing cells in between the veins are a dark blackish-brown color. The rest of the wings, thorax and head a re a pale yellow color.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single record from the mountains.Acer (maple), Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam), Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus (ash) (UDEL)
Erythroneura octonotataA yellowish to orange species with two prominent small black spots on the middle of the wings along the commissure. There are two yellow or orange parallel submedial lines on the top of the head, with a broad white midline in between. The pronotum has a Y to M-shaped mark, sometimes with the anterior margin colored as well. Much of the scutellum is black except for the lateral triangles; this bold black scutellum is diagnostic for this species, though in some specimens the apex of the scutellum is pale. The black mesonotum sometimes is visible through the pronotum. The costal margin of the wings has a small black mark in the middle, and the wing tips are smudged with brown; there is a bold pair of black spots along the inner margin of the wings near the tips. In var. rufomaculata, the clavi of the wings is a bold, bright red. Adults are 2.6-2.9 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: 3I.

A single record from Buncombe county in the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Rubus sp., Vitis sp., Cercis canadensis, Ilex decidua, Ulmus alata, Aesculus sp. (3I)
Erythroneura vagabundaA yellowish to orange species with two prominent small black spots on the middle of the wings. There are two yellow or orange parallel submedial lines on the top of the head, with a broad white midline in between. The pronotum has a Y-shaped mark, though in some orange individuals the posterior portion of the pronotum can be yellow or bluish, and in other individuals the Y is not as distinct, blending in with the color on the posterior portion of the pronotum. The costal margin of the wings has a small black mark in the middle, and the wing tips are smudged with brown; there is a dark brown to black thin band that goes around the base of the tips Adults are 2.9-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)A single record from Wake county in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Redbud (Cercis canadensis), Vitis sp. (3I)
Erythridula rufostigmosaA variable species with a pale yellowish to white body and a red-orange to brown color pattern. Some individuals have a reddish-orange central longitudinal band extending across the entire length of the body and wings. The band is bordered with two sets of bold, prominent red lines; one set runs along the vertex and pronotum before converging on the wings while the other set starts a bit further out and extends towards the wings tips. Note that these lines are quite thick, with the inner set taking up almost the entire clavus of each wing. The lateral margins of the pronotum and vertex are pale, conclorous with the outer sections of the wings. Color form 'subnubila' is darker overall, with thinner red border lines or none at all; the central band is dark brown to blackish. The face and underside of the thorax are pale, except for the mesosternum which is dark; the abdomen is also dark dorsally. Adults are 2.9 to 3.1 mm long. (3I)Scattered records across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Recorded recently from mixed hardwood forest habitat.Salix babylonica, S. interior, S. nigra, and other species of Salix (3I)
Graphocephala hieroglyphicaA variable species, ranging in color from grayish-green or light blue to reddish-pink. The body and wings tend to be concolorous, and the wing venation is typically blackish though it can be reddish and appear as if the red color is bleeding into the wing cells. There are bold black lines on the wings, and black markings on the corners of an otherwise yellowish scutellum. The head and pronotum are concolorous with the base wing color but have black markings. The head has complex, bold, black and symmetrical markings on either side of a pale, unmarked midline; these markings are characteristic of this species. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated, convex triangular projection and is more than twice as long as the preceding sternite; it extends outwards. Male subgenital plates are long and triangular. Adults are 6.0-7.0 mm long. (Delong 1960)

The nymphs of this species are fairly similar to those of G. gothica; location can probably distinguish species for now, and it appears that the nymphs of gothica have darker-brown sides of the body.

Uncommon to rare; only recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Has been found in grassy, field-like habitat as well as wet depressions.Willow (Salix sp.) (DeLong 1948)
Javesella pellucidaA brown species that tends to be quite variable in color. Both brachypterous and macropterous forms occur, though it seems that the latter is more common. Males are much darker than females, ranging closer to black. Some males have a black thorax with a white ring around the base, similar to Delphacodes puella but lacking the black spot on the wings. Males can have very black faces with pale carinae. Note in males the strongly decurved aedeagus, characteristic of this species. Females are light brown overall with a dark frons and pale ridges on the thorax. Scattered records across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it is uncommon; this species should be found though in the mountains.Has been found in grassy, brushy areas and forest edge.Polyphagous, mostly grasses (Festuca, Elymus, Dactylis, Poa, Deschampsia, Agrostis, Lolium, Calamagrostis, Phleum, and others); less commonly on sedges, rushes, and horsetails. (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Javesella opacaA dark, blackish species: BOLD.Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains, probably more abundant in this region but likely restricted by habitat.Mossy areas in rock outcrops, below shurbs and small trees (especially Chinese privet and eastern red-cedar) (Wheeler,
2003
)
Polytrichum commune (Polytrichaceae) (common hair-cap moss) (UDEL)
Muirodelphax undaHas some markings on the body (C. Bartlett pers. comment). See: BOLD.Can be locally abundant in coastal areas with the right habitat; likely found elsewhere along the coast.Probably coastal grassy areasAmmophila (C. Bartlett pers. comment)
Muirodelphax peneluteusProbably grassy areas
Muirodelphax parvulusA brownish species with two forms. The typical form is brownish overall with markings on the abdomen. The frons is completely unmarked; here are images of a male and female brachypterous specimen. Note that the male has a darker abdomen than the female. The other form is 'rotundata' which has bolder markings on the abdomen and thorax. These markings are a combination of red, brown, and black. The antennal segments for both forms are pale.
Uncommon, recorded across the state but primarily from the Piedmont; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, brushy areasSchizachyrium scoparium (Little bluestem)
Muirodelphax luteusEntirely pale (C. Bartlett pers. comment)Probably grassy areasEragrostis curvula (UDEL)
Muirodelphax atralabisAn orange species. Males have a reddish-orange abdomen that contrasts with the light brown thorax and head. There is a black spot on each side of the thorax, and the frons is completely unmarked. Females are orange and lack any marks. Note that brachypterous females have relatively long wings compared to other Muirodelphax. This species closely resembles M. arvensis, but males of atralabis lack the black marks on the scutellum and atralabis is noticeably smaller as well. (UDEL)Somewhat common, mostly found in the mountains but has been recorded in the Piedmont. Likely more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, brushy areas
Muirodelphax arvensisAn orange to light brown species. Brachypterous males have an orange and black abdomen and two black marks on the scutellum. There is also a black spot on each side of the thorax, and the frons is completely unmarked. Brachypterous females are plain brownish-orange, lacking any marks; females also have a plain frons. Macropterous adults resemble brachypters in color and have clear wings.Uncommon to common (especially in the mountains), recorded across the state.Grassy, brushy areasAgropyron sp. (wheatgrass), Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass), Calamovilfa longifolia (Prairie sandreed), Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass), Agrostis sp. (Bentgrass), Festuca ovina (Sheep fescue), Achnatherum coronatum (Giant ricegrass), Carex scoparia (Broom sedge, Cyperaceae) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Metadelphax wetmoreiAdult macropterous (long-winged) males are around 2.93 mm long. Adults are generally yellowish tan to brownish in color, and the face is dark with pale/white ridges. The two antennal segments are pale with noticeably dark margins apically on segment I and basally on segment II, forming a dark ring at the junction of the two segments. The pronotum is pale, and the wings can be slightly fuscous with dark veins. This species closely resembles M. propinqua and Toya idonea. However, M. wetmorei is described as consistently exhibiting dark intercarinal regions compared to propinqua which has embrowned regions with dark borders on the frons: the frons in wetmorei is completely dark with white ridges, while it is brown with a black border and white ridges in propinqua. Furthermore, wetmorei tends to have a dark clypeus (lower part of the face), whereas propinqua's clypeus is pale. These features are compounded by the fact that variation occurs in the two species with regards to the face and should not be used as a definitive distinguishing feature. However, while propinqua tends to have pale antennal segments, there is a dark brown ring around the juncture of the two segments in wetmorei. T. idonea resembles both species but has a darkened face like in wetmorei and pale antennal segments like in propinqua. Furthermore, T. idonea can have brachypterous (short-winged) adults while this has not been seen in M. wetmorei; brachypterous specimens with a dark face that may represent one of these similar species are very likely to be T. idonea. It is helpful to photograph the face of individuals that may represent one of these three species, but in some cases an ID may not be possible. For images of pinned specimens from these three closely related species, see: propinqua, wetmorei, and idonea. For more information about these three species and species-specific characteristics, see: G & B 2007.Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and coastal plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Probably in grassy habitats?
Metadelphax propinquaA highly variable species in which short (brachypter) and long-winged (macropter) forms are common. Adult macropterous males are around 3.29 mm long, while brachypters are around 1.97 mm; macropter females are around 3.37 mm and brachypters are on average around 2.35 mm. Adults are generally yellowish tan to brownish in color, and the face is embrowned with pale/white ridges and darker borders to the embrowned parts. The two antennal segments are pale with dark margins apically on segment I and basally on segment II. The pronotum is concolorous with the rest of the body, and the wings can be slightly fuscous. Brachypterous individuals tend to be paler than macropters. This species closely resembles M. wetmorei and Toya idonea. However, M. wetmorei is described as consistently exhibiting dark intercarinal regions compared to propinqua which has embrowned regions with dark borders on the frons: the frons in wetmorei is completely dark with white ridges, while it is brown with a black border and white ridges in propinqua. Furthermore, wetmorei tends to have a dark clypeus (lower part of the face), whereas propinqua's clypeus is pale. These features are compounded by the fact that variation occurs in the two species with regards to the face and should not be used as a definitive distinguishing feature. However, while propinqua tends to have pale antennal segments, there is a dark brown ring around the juncture of the two segments in wetmorei. T. idonea resembles both species but has a darkened face like in wetmorei and pale antennal segments like in propinqua. It is helpful to photograph the face of individuals that may represent one of these three species, but in some cases an ID may not be possible. For images of pinned specimens from these three closely related species, see: propinqua, wetmorei, and idonea. For more information about these three species and species-specific characteristics, see: G & B 2007.Common, recorded throughout the state, especially from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Has been found in grassy areas.Reported on about 15 grass species, including sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). (UDEL) Metadelphax propinqua reaches high population levels on Bermuda grass.
Prokelisia marginataA light brownish species with yellowish to hyaline wings and a pale thorax and face. The frons has dark brown longitudinal markings along the median and is widest in the basal third; it is about two times longer than it is wide.
Adult males are 2.3-4.1 mm long, while females are 3.4-4.4 mm. (Wilson, 1982)
Locally common along the coast where it has been recorded, probably found throughout the coast.Grassy, marshy areas with Spartina (UDEL)Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) (UDEL)
Prokelisia dolusA brownish species with yellowish hyaline wings and a light brown to yellow thorax and pale face. The frons has dark brown longitudinal markings along the median and is widest in the basal third; it is less than two times longer than it is wide. Adult males are 2.7-3.3 mm long, while females are 2.9-3.6 mm. (Wilson, 1982)Primarily recorded from the Coastal Plain, with records from a single county in the Piedmont. Likely more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy areas with Spartina (UDEL)Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) (UDEL)
Prokelisia croceaA distinctive member of this genus, yellowish-orange overall with orangish markings on the thorax and face. Otherwise, the face is pale, orange-yellow laterally and pale medially. See here for images of live adults. (UDEL)Recorded from the coast, likely more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, coastal habitatCoastal grasses, cordgrass (Spartina alternifolia) (UDEL)
Spartidelphax detectusA pale, whitish species with a robust body. The head, including the eyes, are slightly larger than the pronotum, and the vertex in dorsal view projects past the eyes. Macropters (long-winged) are darker than brachypters, with the abdomen and lateral portion of the mesonotum a brownish color. However, macropterous wings are clear (just like brachypterous wings) and extend past the length of the abdomen. Both Spartidelphax species are extremely similar, though S. detectus is slightly smaller than penedetectus. The best field mark for differentiating the two species without dissection is the length of the vertex. In S. penedetectus, the vertex is nearly 1.5 (range around 1.34 to 1.5) times longer than it is wide; in S. detectus, the vertex is slightly shorter, being about 1.3 (range around 1.25 to 1.31) times longer than wide. Note the slight difference in the lengths with these two specimens. In penedetectus, brachypter males have an average body length of 2.33 mm while macropters have an average of 3.79 mm; female brachypters have an average length of 3.06 mm while macropters have an average of 4.07 mm. In detectus, brachypter males have an average body length of 2.28 mm while macropters have an average of 3.29 mm; female brachypters have an average length of 2.89 mm while macropters have an average of 3.61 mm. Looking at male genitalia, the aedeagus of penedetectus has ventral teeth or fine serrulations, while in detectus is has long rows of lateral teeth extending beyond the distal third of the aedeagus. Nymphs of this genus are whitish overall. For more information on Spartidelphax and differentiating to the two species, see: Bartlett 2014.Recorded along the coast where it can be locally abundant. Likely found throughout our coastal habitats where suitable habitat exists.Coastal marsh grass, spartina in particularSpartina patens (Poaceae, saltmeadow cordgrass), Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass). Spartidelphax detectus is likely a specialist on S. patens, with S. alterniflora “an inferior host plant for development” (UDEL).
Spartidelphax penedetectusA pale, whitish species with a robust body. The head, including the eyes, are slightly larger than the pronotum, and the vertex in dorsal view projects past the eyes. Macropters (long-winged) are darker than brachypters, with the abdomen and lateral portion of the mesonotum a brownish color. However, macropterous wings are clear (just like brachypterous wings) and extend past the length of the abdomen. Both Spartidelphax species are extremely similar, though S. penedetectus is slightly larger than detectus. The best field mark for differentiating the two species without dissection is the length of the vertex. In S. penedetectus, the vertex is nearly 1.5 (range around 1.34 to 1.5) times longer than it is wide; in S. detectus, the vertex is slightly shorter, being about 1.3 (range around 1.25 to 1.31) times longer than wide. Note the slight difference in the lengths with these two specimens. In penedetectus, brachypter males have an average body length of 2.33 mm while macropters have an average of 3.79 mm; female brachypters have an average length of 3.06 mm while macropters have an average of 4.07 mm. In detectus, brachypter males have an average body length of 2.28 mm while macropters have an average of 3.29 mm; female brachypters have an average length of 2.89 mm while macropters have an average of 3.61 mm. Looking at male genitalia, the aedeagus of penedetectus has ventral teeth or fine serrulations, while in detectus is has long rows of lateral teeth extending beyond the distal third of the aedeagus. Nymphs of this genus are whitish overall. For more information on Spartidelphax and differentiating to the two species, see: Bartlett 2014.Recorded along the coast where it can be locally abundant. Likely found throughout our coastal habitats where suitable habitat exists.Coastal marsh grass, spartina in particularSpartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cixidia variegataA brown species with a mottled, spotted wing pattern that can vary in darkness and color among individuals. The legs and underside of the body are brown, though the underside of the thorax is grayish. The head is short and does not extend far out from the body; the face is brown with many small pale, yellowish spots, characteristic for this species. It is important to photograph the face in order to make a conclusive ID for individuals that may represent this species or other similar ones.Several records across the state, with a majority in the coastal plain; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open habitat near pine forest.
Microcentrus perditusThis species ranges in color from light brown to dark grayish-brown. The key characteristic for this species are the horns/projections present on the thorax, separating this from the projection-less M. caryae. Females have extremely pronounced horns that noticeably project from the pronotum. Males also have horns, but these are much smaller, being slight pronotal projections. Males are 7 to 8 mm long, while females are 8.5 mm (FSCA).Uncommon to rare, scattered records across the state. Seasonal distribution: 20 May-20 October (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Carya illinoinensis (CTNC); has also been recorded from Quercus laurifolia, Q. nigra, and Q.
virginiana (FSCA), and Q. alba (CTGSMNP)
Osbornellus clarusA medium-sized leafhopper that is typically brownish. This species has a characteristic bold, dark mottled pattern on the wings, contrasting with large white spots in the middle, and a bold black and orange pattern on the head. Additionally, there is a bold prominent white triangle on the apex of the head. The pronotum has a pale grayish median line, and there are white spots along the anterior edge. The scutellum has two dark brown triangles in the anterior corners; otherwise, the scutellum is mostly yellowish white. The wing venation is dark, and the legs are yellowish. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly produced, while each male plates has a long and slender attenuated apex. Adults are around 5.0-5.5 mm long. (Beamer 1937), (DeLong 1948)Uncommon; scattered records throughout the state.Mixed to open forest habitat; where herbaceous vegetation is.Herbaceous plants
Osbornellus consorsA medium-sized leafhopper that is typically a pale reddish-brown color, marked with a fuscous and yellowish mottled pattern. Lines on the vertex blend with and are not much darker than the base color. The pronotum has a row of pale white spots along its anterior edge, behind the eyes; there is also a pale midline. The scutellum is orange-brown, with a bold orange mark in the anterior corners. The female seventh sternite has a sinuate posterior margin; each male plate is long with an attenuate tip. Adults are around 5.5-6.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948). Nymphs are somewhat bicolored, with brown sides, a yellowish-white underside, and a mostly yellowish-white midline down the body.This species has been recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and mountains, but likely misidentified or under collected; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Mixed to open forest habitat; where herbaceous vegetation is. Has been found near mixed hardwoods and forest edge.
Balclutha incisaA slender species that ranges from yellow, yellowish-green, and green in color, sometimes pale. The wings are concolorous with the body color, and the cells of the forewings are sometimes fuscous (see images above). The head is as wide as or slightly wider than the pronotum; the vertex is the same length in the middle as next to the eye. The female pregenital sternite is is seemingly variable in shape, ranging from a straight posterior margin to one that is concavely bilobate. The male subgenital plates are triangular, with short finger-like projections that extend from the tapered apexes. Adult males are 2.9 to 3.6 mm long, females are 2.8 to 3.8 mm. Nymphs are a light brown color. (Knight, 1987)

For images of specimens of nymphs and adults, see: BOLD and EOL. For a couple diagrams of the genitalia, see: 3i.

Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, rare; likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest, forest edge; also in grassy areasProbably grasses; Knight (1987) reports the following host plants for this species from around the world, most from the Caribbean: Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus ferax, Daucus carota (carrot), Eriochloa subglabra, Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Oryza sativa (rice), Panicum barbinode, Saccharum sp. (sugar-cane)
Eratoneura micheneriA pale yellow to yellowish-orange species with a small red mark restricted to the middle of the wings. These red marks are cube-shaped, often times with a lateral branch in the form of a small red dot on the side. The rest of the wings have yellowish markings, with a pair of bold black spots near the wing tips. The top of the head has two parallel orange submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The pronotum has a yellowish-orange Y, V, or M-shaped mark; the scutellum is yellowish-orange. The face and underside of the thorax are entirely pale. Adults are 2.8- 3.0 mm long. (3I)Recorded from several counties across the state where it can be locally abundant; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Alnus rugosa, Castanea sp., Juglans nigra, Quercus alba, and Quercus marilandica (3I)
Erythridula verdanaA distinctively colored species, yellowish overall except for a red to orange apex of the clavus; this mark appears as a reddish triangle on otherwise yellow wings. The extent and shape of the red can vary, appearing less like a triangle in less-bold individuals. The vertex is unicolorous with a pale midline; in bold individuals, there are two yellowish longitudinal lines on the pronotum leading to the yellowish scutellum. The thoracic venter is entirely pale, and the abdomen is pale dorsally. Adults are 3.3 mm long. (3I).Rare with two records from the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.?
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Doleranus longulusBrownish-yellow, marked with reddish-brown; the chestnut-colored wings have pale venation, outlined with darker infuscations inside each wing cell. The vertex is twice as wide as it is long, with a somewhat rounded, pointed tip. The ocelli are white, connected by a white transverse line along the margin. The pronotum is fulvous, with dark brown markigns on the anterior portion; the scutellum is the same color but has dark lateral triangles. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin depressed, slightly and angularly elevated. The male subgenital plates are rounded with almost parallel-margined tips. Adults are 5-6 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

For some diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

A single record for the state from the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat. Metcalf (1967) lists the species for North Carolina but it is unclear from where.Wooded floodplains, along stream banks, etc. (DeLong, 1948)Herbaceous plants
Poblicia fuliginosaA dark species, almost black in color, with small white speckling on the wings. The head is short but broad and has a yellow margin to the flat edge; the eyes are equal in separation or broader than the pronotum, but not exceeding the width of the closed forewings (UDEL). The thorax and anterior abominal segments are black, while the posterior abdominal segments (most of the abdomen) are a bright red: see here. A large species, adults are 8-17 mm long. See here for other images and angles of a pinned adult. Nymphs have a vertex (top of the head) that, in the 5th instar stage, is at least 8 times wider than long.

Nymphs are grayish overall, with blackish legs, a dark brownish thorax, and a whitish abdomen and head that contrasts with the darker body. There are bumps/spike-like projections across the body. (T. Hagerty)

Uncommon to rare, not encountered frequently; recorded from a handful of counties in the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Often found in clear-cut areas, such as roads and powerlines; can also be found in semi-forested areas (T. Hagerty).Rhus spp., esp. Rhus copallinum L. (winged sumac, Anacardiaceae) in the East (UDEL)
Catonia navaA dark and distinctive Catonia. It is a mostly bicolored species, with prominent black wings with pale, grayish bases; the border between the gray and black is crescent-shaped. The thorax and head are mottled black and white/gray, and the underside of the body and legs are very dark. The face is very dark, with a prominent lower, broad black band, a bold white band, and a mottled upper dark band, paler than the lower black band. This is a large species, typically about 6 mm long or larger. (UDEL)Scattered records across the state; possibly more abundant in the right habitat, uncommon.Has been found near and within mixed hardwood forest. Cornus sp. (dogwood), Platanus sp. (sycamore), Acer sp. (maple) (UDEL)
Acanalonia bivittata
Two-striped Planthopper
This species is typically green with broad wings with dense venation. There is a reddish-brown stripe along the inner edge of both wings, diverging around the margins of the thorax and producing two lines extending to the reddish eyes. Some individuals can be pink rather than green; this color form is known as A. bivittata var. rubescens. The legs are brown. Nymphs typically have a pale, whitish body with brown mottling on top, giving an overall brownish appearance (a key characteristic of this species); the amount of brown mottling can vary among nymph instars. Nymphs in good condition will show a dense clump of white hairs extending from the tip of the abdomen. Nymphs also tend to have a fairly flat and broad head, a very useful characteristic when differentiating from A. conica nymphs which tend to have pointed heads; when viewed from above or the side, the head looks flat across and rectangular in shape. However, nymphs are very difficult to identify in this genus and an ID may not be possible. See W & M for more information and illustrations of nymph instars.(UDEL)Common and widespread across the state.Has been found in grassy, field-type habitats, shrublands, forest edge, and within mixed hardwood forest. Polyphagous, found on a variety of plants.
Platycotis vittata
Oak Treehopper
A distinctive looking treehopper with several forms that vary in color and the presence (or absence) of a pronotal horn. Form vittata lacks a pronotal horn and has a brown to brownish-green body with a mottled color pattern, with or without longitudinal lines. Form lineata also lacks a horn, but there are four longitudinal red lines on an otherwise bluish-white body. Form sagittata has a horn, and the pronotum may be brown to brownish-green with a mottled color pattern, with or without longitudinal lines. Finally, form quadrivitatta also is horned, but there are four longitudinal red lines on an otherwise bluish-white body. Nymphs are mostly black with red marks on the abdomen and yellowish lines across much of the segmented body sections. Nymphs also have red eyes and have several spikes rising from the thorax and may have a forward-facing black horn, depending on whether the nymphs will mature into horned or horn-less adults. Adults are 9-13 mm long. (UF)A common species, recorded across the state. The seasonal distribution in the state is: 16 January-29 December (CTNC)Found in a variety of habitats, especially mixed hardwood forests where oaks are present.Betula sp., Castanea dentata, Fagus sp., Quercus alba, Q. falcata, Q. incana, Q. laevis, Q. margarettiae, Q. nigra, Q. palustris, Q. phellos, Q. rubra, Q. rubra var. ambigua, Q. stellata, Q. velutina, Q. virginiana (CTNC); also on Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula alleghaniensis, Q. imbricaria, and Platanus occidentalis (CTGSMNP), and on Q. prinus (chestnut oak).
Campylenchia latipes
Widefooted Treehopper, Eastern Thornhopper
The only treehopper in the east with a forward pointing horn; in other horned species, the horn curves upwards. A distinctive looking species, adults are dark in color, ranging in color from reddish brown to dark brown, almost black. The edges of the wings are rufous-colored, and the hind legs are spiny while the front legs are leaf-like, giving the appearance of having wide 'feet'. Females are 9mm long, while males are 7.5mm in length (BG). In females, the horn extends well away from the rest of the body, while in males the horn is much smaller. Nymphs are also distinctive- they have largely green abdomens with a row of dark spines on the top. Depending on age, the thorax and head of the nymphs may range in color from light brown to blackis with gray mottling.Recorded throughout the state, common in many locations. Seasonal distribution: 4 May-21 November (CTNC) Found in a variety of habitats, including fields and other grassy areas, brushy habitats (especially where Solidago is present) and forest edge.Associated with herbaceous plants, especially Asteraceae, goldenrod (Solidago sp.), and Medicago sativa (CTNC)
Ponana pectoralisA variably-marked species that is typically green and brown. Adults have a green head, thorax, and [typically] outer half of the forewing. The vertex is broadly produced and rounded. The scutellum is typically pale brown with a whitish posterior half and rufous anterior corners. The inner half of the forewings and wingtips are typically brownish (ranging from light to dark brown), forming a distinctive brown streak down the middle of the back that widens towards the wings tips. There are some black dots, mostly scattered within the brown area on the back. The legs and eyes are brown. Some individuals though can have much darker wings; see here for variation among adults. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly but shallowly notched in the middle with lateral lobes. The male subgenital plates are elongate and rectangular. Adults are 8.0-10.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

The nymph is green with dark brown sides, characteristic of this species. (BG)

Scattered records from across the state, uncommon to locally common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Woodlands, forest edge
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Gyponana octolineataA fairly distinctive but variably colored red and green species. Adults are typically green overall with red longitudinal bands on the pronotum (8 lines on the pronotum, hence octolineata) and red lateral corners on the scutellum. In some individuals, the whole pronotum is reddish, whereas in other individuals there is only a faint reddish tint to the pronotum. The red coloring on the scutellum can also vary, from only the lateral angles to the whole scutellum, and the head can vary from green to red. In most specimens, the red does not extend onto the wings. However, in extremely boldly marked individuals the red can extend onto the wings, typically on the inner edge but sometimes across them; the red does not cover every wing vein though, and some green is still present. The wing venation is moderately complex, being somewhat densely reticulate. Adult males are typically 8.5-9.5 mm long; the size range for the species is 7.5-11.0 mm long. (Hamilton 1982)Fairly common with scattered records across the state, likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, where pines are present; also open woodlands.Pines (Pinus spp.), willows (Salix spp.) (Hamilton 1982)
Planicephalus flavicosta_flavocostatus complexA small dark leafhopper that is very highly variable in coloration, from pale to very dark. There is a small pale yellow border to the outer edge of the wings that ends in a short dash; another small white dash is found closer to the wingtip, and the wingtip itself has a white edge. There are several small white dots on the front of the head and behind the eyes. The legs are pale brown. P. flavocostatus is typically much darker overall than P. flavicosta, the latter of which typically has brownish wings. But the overlap between these species, and variations in the color of individuals makes it almost impossible to differentiate the two species by appearance alone. Nymphs are an overall brownish color with a black tip to the abdomen and several dark brown abdominal segments. (BG)A common species where recorded, this species has been found across the state in all three regions.Grassy, brushy areas
Norvellina seminudaA species with a distinctive appearance. It has a mostly pale, almost whitish body with a broad rufousy-brown band; this band varies in shape, but it is always at least as wide as the white space between it and the base of the scutellum (BG). There are small grayish marks on the thorax, head, and part of the wings, and the face is pale. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margins truncated or slightly produced, and there is a wedge-shaped median tooth. The male genital plates are long and triangular, with narrow apexes that are bluntly pointed. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Scattered records across the state in all three regions where it is uncommon; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest areas; also areas with crops.Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton), Malus sp., Populus sp., Salix sp. (DL)
Cuerna costalisA large, dark, black and red species with longitudinal stripes on forewing. There is a conspicuous white stripe running from the dark eye along the side of the abdomen and both the black head and thorax are sprinkled with orangish marks. The tip of the abdomen has a red spot and this is the only species in the genus with red on the legs (BG). Nymphs are pretty distinctive, having repeated black and yellowish-white stripes over their bodies and dark eyes. However, the nymphs do show the red-black legs (the red on the inner part of the leg) that are characteristic of the adults. Click here for more images of the adults and nymphs. Uncommon to locally common, with scattered records across the state.Found in fields, meadows, and other habitats with tall grass such as open forest.This species has dozens of host plants, including Rudbeckia and Monarda. Click here for a list of host plants: Host Plants.
Aphrophora saratogensis
Saratoga Spittlebug
The adult is almost always reddish in color with white patches on the wings and a broad white line or 'arrow' running down the middle of the thorax and onto the head. Some individuals however may appear completely rufous in color. Adults are about 8 mm in length, with females slightly larger than males. Wings are heavily pitted, characteristic of members of this genus, and the top of the head is relatively flat. Nymphs have bright scarlet abdomens bordered by black sides and black heads and bodies. The fifth nymph stage is dark brown. WilsonUncommon in North Carolina. Recorded across the state, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Pine or coniferous forests are favored, with herbaceous undergrowth for the nymphs. Has also been found in mixed hardwood forests and tall grass.Main plant hosts for the adults are red pine, Jack pine, and Scots pine, though the Saratoga spittlebug will also feed on white pine, pitch pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and northern white-cedar, usually from trees near infested red pine. Young nymphs feed on herbaceous plant species of the forest floor such as brambles (raspberry and blackberry), orange hawkweed, everlasting, aster, and many others. Older nymphs feed on sweet fern and willow sprouts. Wilson
Poblicia texanaA very distinctively colored species, nothing else resembles it. A pale grayish tan color overall with a bold, broad black transverse band extending from the head down the pronotum and scutellum. The wings have pinkish cells, and the pattern overall is reticulated/mottled. The legs are bicolored, both black and tan. Adults are 18-20+ mm long, approaching an inch. Nymphs are reddish-brown with greenish wing pads and a broad white midline on the thorax. The head is a characteristic rounded lobe.

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, three records from the Piedmont, this species is likely a recent arrival in the state.Has been found in open woodland forest.Woody plants
Scaphytopius unidentified speciesMixed hardwood forest, open woodlands, grassy areas, etc.
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Texananus unidentified species
Texananus (Iowanus)
Large, brownish overall. The entire body and wings have a dense reticulated mesh-like dark brown pattern, extending onto the face. The vertex has a white tip, in front of a broken dark brown band between the eyes. Adults are between 9.0 and 10.0 mm long.Found throughout the state.Mixed hardwood forest, open woodlands, grassy areas, etc.
Erythroneura rubrellaA colorful species with a bluish-white body and a reddish color pattern. The two reddish-orange bands on the wings extending downwards from the thorax typically have sharp right angles on the inside, forming a bluish "box". The bluish pattern on the lower, middle half of the wings resembles the outline of an arrowhead when viewed from above, with an orange center. The mesonotum is pale, ranging in color from yellow to orange. The pronotum is largely orange, with a broad "M" shape extending across it; the rest of the pronotum is bluish. The top of the head has a yellowish-green to orange pattern with parallel submedial lines; the midline of the head however is orange to red, a key characteristic for this species. Adults are 2.7-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Scattered records from several counties in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been recorded in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Cornus pumila, C. stolonifera (Dogwood) (3I)
Telamona maculataA reddish-brown species with a broad, tall pronotal crest (almost a plateau shape). The posterior tip of the pronotum is red, followed by a pale brown and then a dark brown, almost black band. The pronotal horns may be reddish as well and extend well to the sides of the rest of the pronotum. The front of the head is pale. Uncommon, recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains. Seasonal distribution: 10 May- October (CTNC)Forest with oakQuercus
Erythroneura rosaThis species has a reddish or brownish color pattern with parallel vertical orange/yellow bars on the vertex and a pale midline. The pronotum varies in color from yellowish-orange to reddish-brown; there are three circular pale spots along the anterior half of the pronotum. The scutellum is pale to dark, sometimes with dark lateral triangles. This is a variable species with three color forms. In the nominate form, the wings are largely a bold red color. There are three large white spots near the base of the wings, separated by a broad red clavical line. There are four smaller white spots clustered around a reddish triangle closer to the wing tips, forming a spade-like shape. The wing tips are blackish, sometimes relegated to an L-shaped line extending outwards on each tip. Form 'mallochi' resembles the nominate form but is paler overall, appearing faded. The third form 'repetita' looks quite different from the other two forms; it has three dark crossbands, one across the thorax and base of the wings, one across the middle of the wings, and another at the wing tips. Adults are 2.8 to 3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded recently from Vance and Warren counties in the upper Piedmont, constituting the first known records of this species in North Carolina; possibly more abundant across the state, especially where willows (Salix sp.) are present.Brushy vegetation, likely where willows occur.Salix myricoides, S. babylonica, S. cordata, S. bebbiana, S. petiolaris, S. caprea, S. humilis, S. interior (3I). Has been found in the state on black willow (Salix nigra).
Graminella sonoraA pale tan species with four bold black dots on the edge of the vertex. Adults are small, around 3.0 mm long or smaller. The combination of the coloration and pattern, together with the small size, are key characteristics for distinguishing this species from others in the genus. The individual male genital plates are triangular in shape, with sharp apexes that are divergent from one another. The female pregenital sternite has a moderate, rounded excavation on the medial half of the posterior margin, with a slight convex tooth in the middle and convex lateral margins to the sternite; the excavation is bordered with brown. For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.Recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in a grassy, open area near forest edge.
Neocenchrea heidemanniA pale, mostly white species with elongated wings and a slim, slender body structure. There are two main areas of color, on the thorax & head and the antennae. A broad white midline, beginning on the head and extending across the thorax, separates two orange patches that cover the sides of the thorax and head. The antennae are also orange. Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, rare; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Arecaceae
Erasmoneura fulminaA fairly dark and variable species, with two main forms. The vertex is mostly a dark brown to blackish color, sometimes with some small pale spots to either side of a whitish midline. The anteclypeus (lower part of the face) is brown or black, while the pronotum is dark brown or blackish with some white speckling. The scutellum is largely dark, with a pale midline between two dark lateral triangles. The underside of the thorax is entirely dark. In the nominate form, the dorsum is yellow or white, with a red, orange, brown or blackish color pattern on the wings that contrasts with pale patches. In form "bicolorata" the basal half of the wings is entirely dark, contrasting with the much paler distal half of the wings. Adults are 2.7-2.9 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Rare, recorded from a single county in both the Piedmont and mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Vitis sp. (3I)
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Evacanthus bellaustralisMales are yellowish, with the legs sometimes tinged with orange and the claws infuscated. The scutellum and pronotum are typically black, though in some individuals the center of the pronotum can be yellow. The head has two black spots in the middle. The wings are partially yellow, contrasting with a black band on the clavi (inner part of the wings) that narrow before following the commissure to the wing tips, where a triangular-shaped mark extends from the apex of each wing; the commissure (inner edge of the wings) is yellow. Females are white, tan or stained with orange. The claws and frontal arcs on the head are lightly infuscated. The wing pattern varies from almost as dark and extensive as the male but with a dark blotch at the apex of the crown and the center of the pronotum paler than the lateral margins (which are dark), to having almost entirely white or tan wings. There are light brown coronal spots, brown speckling on the pronotum, and dark patches along the clavi and at the wing tips. Adult males are 4.3-4.8 mm, females are 5.1-5.9 mm. (Hamilton, 1983)Locally common in the Smoky Mountains, not necessarily restricted to high elevations (BG)Montane forests, brushy areas