Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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Osbornellus clarusA medium-sized leafhopper that is typically brownish. This species has a characteristic bold, dark mottled pattern on the wings, contrasting with large white spots in the middle, and a bold black and orange pattern on the head. Additionally, there is a bold prominent white triangle on the apex of the head. The pronotum has a pale grayish median line, and there are white spots along the anterior edge. The scutellum has two dark brown triangles in the anterior corners; otherwise, the scutellum is mostly yellowish white. The wing venation is dark, and the legs are yellowish. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly produced, while each male plates has a long and slender attenuated apex. Adults are around 5.0-5.5 mm long. (Beamer 1937), (DeLong 1948)Uncommon; scattered records throughout the state.Mixed to open forest habitat; where herbaceous vegetation is.Herbaceous plants
Osbornellus consorsA medium-sized leafhopper that is typically a pale reddish-brown color, marked with a fuscous and yellowish mottled pattern. Lines on the vertex blend with and are not much darker than the base color. The pronotum has a row of pale white spots along its anterior edge, behind the eyes; there is also a pale midline. The scutellum is orange-brown, with a bold orange mark in the anterior corners. The female seventh sternite has a sinuate posterior margin; each male plate is long with an attenuate tip. Adults are around 5.5-6.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948). Nymphs are somewhat bicolored, with brown sides, a yellowish-white underside, and a mostly yellowish-white midline down the body.This species has been recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and mountains, but likely misidentified or under collected; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Mixed to open forest habitat; where herbaceous vegetation is. Has been found near mixed hardwoods and forest edge.
Balclutha incisaA slender species that ranges from yellow, yellowish-green, and green in color, sometimes pale. The wings are concolorous with the body color, and the cells of the forewings are sometimes fuscous (see images above). The head is as wide as or slightly wider than the pronotum; the vertex is the same length in the middle as next to the eye. The female pregenital sternite is is seemingly variable in shape, ranging from a straight posterior margin to one that is concavely bilobate. The male subgenital plates are triangular, with short finger-like projections that extend from the tapered apexes. Adult males are 2.9 to 3.6 mm long, females are 2.8 to 3.8 mm. Nymphs are a light brown color. (Knight, 1987)

For images of specimens of nymphs and adults, see: BOLD and EOL. For a couple diagrams of the genitalia, see: 3i.

Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, rare; likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest, forest edge; also in grassy areasProbably grasses; Knight (1987) reports the following host plants for this species from around the world, most from the Caribbean: Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus ferax, Daucus carota (carrot), Eriochloa subglabra, Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Oryza sativa (rice), Panicum barbinode, Saccharum sp. (sugar-cane)
Eratoneura micheneriA pale yellow to yellowish-orange species with a small red mark restricted to the middle of the wings. These red marks are cube-shaped, often times with a lateral branch in the form of a small red dot on the side. The rest of the wings have yellowish markings, with a pair of bold black spots near the wing tips. The top of the head has two parallel orange submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The pronotum has a yellowish-orange Y, V, or M-shaped mark; the scutellum is yellowish-orange. The face and underside of the thorax are entirely pale. Adults are 2.8- 3.0 mm long. (3I)Recorded from several counties across the state where it can be locally abundant; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Alnus rugosa, Castanea sp., Juglans nigra, Quercus alba, and Quercus marilandica (3I)
Erythridula verdanaA distinctively colored species, yellowish overall except for a red to orange apex of the clavus; this mark appears as a reddish triangle on otherwise yellow wings. The extent and shape of the red can vary, appearing less like a triangle in less-bold individuals. The vertex is unicolorous with a pale midline; in bold individuals, there are two yellowish longitudinal lines on the pronotum leading to the yellowish scutellum. The thoracic venter is entirely pale, and the abdomen is pale dorsally. Adults are 3.3 mm long. (3I).Rare with two records from the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.?
Doleranus longulusBrownish-yellow, marked with reddish-brown; the chestnut-colored wings have pale venation, outlined with darker infuscations inside each wing cell. The vertex is twice as wide as it is long, with a somewhat rounded, pointed tip. The ocelli are white, connected by a white transverse line along the margin. The pronotum is fulvous, with dark brown markigns on the anterior portion; the scutellum is the same color but has dark lateral triangles. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin depressed, slightly and angularly elevated. The male subgenital plates are rounded with almost parallel-margined tips. Adults are 5-6 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

For some diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

A single record for the state from the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat. Metcalf (1967) lists the species for North Carolina but it is unclear from where.Wooded floodplains, along stream banks, etc. (DeLong, 1948)Herbaceous plants
Poblicia fuliginosaA dark species, almost black in color, with small white speckling on the wings. The head is short but broad and has a yellow margin to the flat edge; the eyes are equal in separation or broader than the pronotum, but not exceeding the width of the closed forewings (UDEL). The thorax and anterior abominal segments are black, while the posterior abdominal segments (most of the abdomen) are a bright red: see here. A large species, adults are 8-17 mm long. See here for other images and angles of a pinned adult. Nymphs have a vertex (top of the head) that, in the 5th instar stage, is at least 8 times wider than long.

Nymphs are grayish overall, with blackish legs, a dark brownish thorax, and a whitish abdomen and head that contrasts with the darker body. There are bumps/spike-like projections across the body. (T. Hagerty)

Uncommon to rare, not encountered frequently; recorded from a handful of counties in the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Often found in clear-cut areas, such as roads and powerlines; can also be found in semi-forested areas (T. Hagerty).Rhus spp., esp. Rhus copallinum L. (winged sumac, Anacardiaceae) in the East (UDEL)
Catonia navaA dark and distinctive Catonia. It is a mostly bicolored species, with prominent black wings with pale, grayish bases; the border between the gray and black is crescent-shaped. The thorax and head are mottled black and white/gray, and the underside of the body and legs are very dark. The face is very dark, with a prominent lower, broad black band, a bold white band, and a mottled upper dark band, paler than the lower black band. This is a large species, typically about 6 mm long or larger. (UDEL)Scattered records across the state; possibly more abundant in the right habitat, uncommon.Has been found near and within mixed hardwood forest. Cornus sp. (dogwood), Platanus sp. (sycamore), Acer sp. (maple) (UDEL)
Acanalonia bivittata
Two-striped Planthopper
This species is typically green with broad wings with dense venation. There is a reddish-brown stripe along the inner edge of both wings, diverging around the margins of the thorax and producing two lines extending to the reddish eyes. Some individuals can be pink rather than green; this color form is known as A. bivittata var. rubescens. The legs are brown. Nymphs typically have a pale, whitish body with brown mottling on top, giving an overall brownish appearance (a key characteristic of this species); the amount of brown mottling can vary among nymph instars. Nymphs in good condition will show a dense clump of white hairs extending from the tip of the abdomen. Nymphs also tend to have a fairly flat and broad head, a very useful characteristic when differentiating from A. conica nymphs which tend to have pointed heads; when viewed from above or the side, the head looks flat across and rectangular in shape. However, nymphs are very difficult to identify in this genus and an ID may not be possible. See W & M for more information and illustrations of nymph instars.(UDEL)Common and widespread across the state.Has been found in grassy, field-type habitats, shrublands, forest edge, and within mixed hardwood forest. Polyphagous, found on a variety of plants.
Platycotis vittata
Oak Treehopper
A distinctive looking treehopper with several forms that vary in color and the presence (or absence) of a pronotal horn. Form vittata lacks a pronotal horn and has a brown to brownish-green body with a mottled color pattern, with or without longitudinal lines. Form lineata also lacks a horn, but there are four longitudinal red lines on an otherwise bluish-white body. Form sagittata has a horn, and the pronotum may be brown to brownish-green with a mottled color pattern, with or without longitudinal lines. Finally, form quadrivitatta also is horned, but there are four longitudinal red lines on an otherwise bluish-white body. Nymphs are mostly black with red marks on the abdomen and yellowish lines across much of the segmented body sections. Nymphs also have red eyes and have several spikes rising from the thorax and may have a forward-facing black horn, depending on whether the nymphs will mature into horned or horn-less adults. Adults are 9-13 mm long. (UF)A common species, recorded across the state. The seasonal distribution in the state is: 16 January-29 December (CTNC)Found in a variety of habitats, especially mixed hardwood forests where oaks are present.Betula sp., Castanea dentata, Fagus sp., Quercus alba, Q. falcata, Q. incana, Q. laevis, Q. margarettiae, Q. nigra, Q. palustris, Q. phellos, Q. rubra, Q. rubra var. ambigua, Q. stellata, Q. velutina, Q. virginiana (CTNC); also on Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula alleghaniensis, Q. imbricaria, and Platanus occidentalis (CTGSMNP), and on Q. prinus (chestnut oak).
Campylenchia latipes
Widefooted Treehopper, Eastern Thornhopper
The only treehopper in the east with a forward pointing horn; in other horned species, the horn curves upwards. A distinctive looking species, adults are dark in color, ranging in color from reddish brown to dark brown, almost black. The edges of the wings are rufous-colored, and the hind legs are spiny while the front legs are leaf-like, giving the appearance of having wide 'feet'. Females are 9mm long, while males are 7.5mm in length (BG). In females, the horn extends well away from the rest of the body, while in males the horn is much smaller. Nymphs are also distinctive- they have largely green abdomens with a row of dark spines on the top. Depending on age, the thorax and head of the nymphs may range in color from light brown to blackis with gray mottling.Recorded throughout the state, common in many locations. Seasonal distribution: 4 May-21 November (CTNC) Found in a variety of habitats, including fields and other grassy areas, brushy habitats (especially where Solidago is present) and forest edge.Associated with herbaceous plants, especially Asteraceae, goldenrod (Solidago sp.), and Medicago sativa (CTNC)
Ponana pectoralisA variably-marked species that is typically green and brown. Adults have a green head, thorax, and [typically] outer half of the forewing. The vertex is broadly produced and rounded. The scutellum is typically pale brown with a whitish posterior half and rufous anterior corners. The inner half of the forewings and wingtips are typically brownish (ranging from light to dark brown), forming a distinctive brown streak down the middle of the back that widens towards the wings tips. There are some black dots, mostly scattered within the brown area on the back. The legs and eyes are brown. Some individuals though can have much darker wings; see here for variation among adults. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly but shallowly notched in the middle with lateral lobes. The male subgenital plates are elongate and rectangular. Adults are 8.0-10.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

The nymph is green with dark brown sides, characteristic of this species. (BG)

Scattered records from across the state, uncommon to locally common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Woodlands, forest edge
Gyponana octolineataA fairly distinctive but variably colored red and green species. Adults are typically green overall with red longitudinal bands on the pronotum (8 lines on the pronotum, hence octolineata) and red lateral corners on the scutellum. In some individuals, the whole pronotum is reddish, whereas in other individuals there is only a faint reddish tint to the pronotum. The red coloring on the scutellum can also vary, from only the lateral angles to the whole scutellum, and the head can vary from green to red. In most specimens, the red does not extend onto the wings. However, in extremely boldly marked individuals the red can extend onto the wings, typically on the inner edge but sometimes across them; the red does not cover every wing vein though, and some green is still present. The wing venation is moderately complex, being somewhat densely reticulate. Adult males are typically 8.5-9.5 mm long; the size range for the species is 7.5-11.0 mm long. (Hamilton 1982)Fairly common with scattered records across the state, likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, where pines are present; also open woodlands.Pines (Pinus spp.), willows (Salix spp.) (Hamilton 1982)
Planicephalus flavicosta_flavocostatus complexA small dark leafhopper that is very highly variable in coloration, from pale to very dark. There is a small pale yellow border to the outer edge of the wings that ends in a short dash; another small white dash is found closer to the wingtip, and the wingtip itself has a white edge. There are several small white dots on the front of the head and behind the eyes. The legs are pale brown. P. flavocostatus is typically much darker overall than P. flavicosta, the latter of which typically has brownish wings. But the overlap between these species, and variations in the color of individuals makes it almost impossible to differentiate the two species by appearance alone. Nymphs are an overall brownish color with a black tip to the abdomen and several dark brown abdominal segments. (BG)A common species where recorded, this species has been found across the state in all three regions.Grassy, brushy areas
Norvellina seminudaA species with a distinctive appearance. It has a mostly pale, almost whitish body with a broad rufousy-brown band; this band varies in shape, but it is always at least as wide as the white space between it and the base of the scutellum (BG). There are small grayish marks on the thorax, head, and part of the wings, and the face is pale. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margins truncated or slightly produced, and there is a wedge-shaped median tooth. The male genital plates are long and triangular, with narrow apexes that are bluntly pointed. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Scattered records across the state in all three regions where it is uncommon; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest areas; also areas with crops.Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton), Malus sp., Populus sp., Salix sp. (DL)
Cuerna costalisA large, dark, black and red species with longitudinal stripes on forewing. There is a conspicuous white stripe running from the dark eye along the side of the abdomen and both the black head and thorax are sprinkled with orangish marks. The tip of the abdomen has a red spot and this is the only species in the genus with red on the legs (BG). Nymphs are pretty distinctive, having repeated black and yellowish-white stripes over their bodies and dark eyes. However, the nymphs do show the red-black legs (the red on the inner part of the leg) that are characteristic of the adults. Click here for more images of the adults and nymphs. Uncommon to locally common, with scattered records across the state.Found in fields, meadows, and other habitats with tall grass such as open forest.This species has dozens of host plants, including Rudbeckia and Monarda. Click here for a list of host plants: Host Plants.
Aphrophora saratogensis
Saratoga Spittlebug
The adult is almost always reddish in color with white patches on the wings and a broad white line or 'arrow' running down the middle of the thorax and onto the head. Some individuals however may appear completely rufous in color. Adults are about 8 mm in length, with females slightly larger than males. Wings are heavily pitted, characteristic of members of this genus, and the top of the head is relatively flat. Nymphs have bright scarlet abdomens bordered by black sides and black heads and bodies. The fifth nymph stage is dark brown. WilsonUncommon in North Carolina. Recorded across the state, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Pine or coniferous forests are favored, with herbaceous undergrowth for the nymphs. Has also been found in mixed hardwood forests and tall grass.Main plant hosts for the adults are red pine, Jack pine, and Scots pine, though the Saratoga spittlebug will also feed on white pine, pitch pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and northern white-cedar, usually from trees near infested red pine. Young nymphs feed on herbaceous plant species of the forest floor such as brambles (raspberry and blackberry), orange hawkweed, everlasting, aster, and many others. Older nymphs feed on sweet fern and willow sprouts. Wilson
Poblicia texanaA very distinctively colored species, nothing else resembles it. A pale grayish tan color overall with a bold, broad black transverse band extending from the head down the pronotum and scutellum. The wings have pinkish cells, and the pattern overall is reticulated/mottled. The legs are bicolored, both black and tan. Adults are 18-20+ mm long, approaching an inch. Nymphs are reddish-brown with greenish wing pads and a broad white midline on the thorax. The head is a characteristic rounded lobe.

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, three records from the Piedmont, this species is likely a recent arrival in the state.Has been found in open woodland forest.Woody plants
Scaphytopius unidentified speciesMixed hardwood forest, open woodlands, grassy areas, etc.
Texananus unidentified species
Texananus (Iowanus)
Large, brownish overall. The entire body and wings have a dense reticulated mesh-like dark brown pattern, extending onto the face. The vertex has a white tip, in front of a broken dark brown band between the eyes. Adults are between 9.0 and 10.0 mm long.Found throughout the state.Mixed hardwood forest, open woodlands, grassy areas, etc.
Erythroneura rubrellaA colorful species with a bluish-white body and a reddish color pattern. The two reddish-orange bands on the wings extending downwards from the thorax typically have sharp right angles on the inside, forming a bluish "box". The bluish pattern on the lower, middle half of the wings resembles the outline of an arrowhead when viewed from above, with an orange center. The mesonotum is pale, ranging in color from yellow to orange. The pronotum is largely orange, with a broad "M" shape extending across it; the rest of the pronotum is bluish. The top of the head has a yellowish-green to orange pattern with parallel submedial lines; the midline of the head however is orange to red, a key characteristic for this species. Adults are 2.7-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Scattered records from several counties in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been recorded in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Cornus pumila, C. stolonifera (Dogwood) (3I)
Telamona maculataA reddish-brown species with a broad, tall pronotal crest (almost a plateau shape). The posterior tip of the pronotum is red, followed by a pale brown and then a dark brown, almost black band. The pronotal horns may be reddish as well and extend well to the sides of the rest of the pronotum. The front of the head is pale. Uncommon, recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains. Seasonal distribution: 10 May- October (CTNC)Forest with oakQuercus
Erythroneura rosaThis species has a reddish or brownish color pattern with parallel vertical orange/yellow bars on the vertex and a pale midline. The pronotum varies in color from yellowish-orange to reddish-brown; there are three circular pale spots along the anterior half of the pronotum. The scutellum is pale to dark, sometimes with dark lateral triangles. This is a variable species with three color forms. In the nominate form, the wings are largely a bold red color. There are three large white spots near the base of the wings, separated by a broad red clavical line. There are four smaller white spots clustered around a reddish triangle closer to the wing tips, forming a spade-like shape. The wing tips are blackish, sometimes relegated to an L-shaped line extending outwards on each tip. Form 'mallochi' resembles the nominate form but is paler overall, appearing faded. The third form 'repetita' looks quite different from the other two forms; it has three dark crossbands, one across the thorax and base of the wings, one across the middle of the wings, and another at the wing tips. Adults are 2.8 to 3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded recently from Vance and Warren counties in the upper Piedmont, constituting the first known records of this species in North Carolina; possibly more abundant across the state, especially where willows (Salix sp.) are present.Brushy vegetation, likely where willows occur.Salix myricoides, S. babylonica, S. cordata, S. bebbiana, S. petiolaris, S. caprea, S. humilis, S. interior (3I). Has been found in the state on black willow (Salix nigra).
Graminella sonoraA pale tan species with four bold black dots on the edge of the vertex. Adults are small, around 3.0 mm long or smaller. The combination of the coloration and pattern, together with the small size, are key characteristics for distinguishing this species from others in the genus. The individual male genital plates are triangular in shape, with sharp apexes that are divergent from one another. The female pregenital sternite has a moderate, rounded excavation on the medial half of the posterior margin, with a slight convex tooth in the middle and convex lateral margins to the sternite; the excavation is bordered with brown. For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.Recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in a grassy, open area near forest edge.
Neocenchrea heidemanniA pale, mostly white species with elongated wings and a slim, slender body structure. There are two main areas of color, on the thorax & head and the antennae. A broad white midline, beginning on the head and extending across the thorax, separates two orange patches that cover the sides of the thorax and head. The antennae are also orange. Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, rare; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Arecaceae
Erasmoneura fulminaA fairly dark and variable species, with two main forms. The vertex is mostly a dark brown to blackish color, sometimes with some small pale spots to either side of a whitish midline. The anteclypeus (lower part of the face) is brown or black, while the pronotum is dark brown or blackish with some white speckling. The scutellum is largely dark, with a pale midline between two dark lateral triangles. The underside of the thorax is entirely dark. In the nominate form, the dorsum is yellow or white, with a red, orange, brown or blackish color pattern on the wings that contrasts with pale patches. In form "bicolorata" the basal half of the wings is entirely dark, contrasting with the much paler distal half of the wings. Adults are 2.7-2.9 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Rare, recorded from a single county in both the Piedmont and mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Vitis sp. (3I)
Evacanthus bellaustralisMales are yellowish, with the legs sometimes tinged with orange and the claws infuscated. The scutellum and pronotum are typically black, though in some individuals the center of the pronotum can be yellow. The head has two black spots in the middle. The wings are partially yellow, contrasting with a black band on the clavi (inner part of the wings) that narrow before following the commissure to the wing tips, where a triangular-shaped mark extends from the apex of each wing; the commissure (inner edge of the wings) is yellow. Females are white, tan or stained with orange. The claws and frontal arcs on the head are lightly infuscated. The wing pattern varies from almost as dark and extensive as the male but with a dark blotch at the apex of the crown and the center of the pronotum paler than the lateral margins (which are dark), to having almost entirely white or tan wings. There are light brown coronal spots, brown speckling on the pronotum, and dark patches along the clavi and at the wing tips. Adult males are 4.3-4.8 mm, females are 5.1-5.9 mm. (Hamilton, 1983)Locally common in the Smoky Mountains, not necessarily restricted to high elevations (BG)Montane forests, brushy areas
Erythroneura infuscataA dark, mostly black species that is distinctive in appearance from most other members of the family Typhlocybinae. The black wings and body have several small pale spots at the base of the wings, down the midlength, and on the scutellum. There is a prominent white patch on the costal margin of each wing, followed by a red mark. The legs and face are whitish. Adults are 2.8-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains where it is uncommon to rare, possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Quercus imbricaria, Hamamelis virginiana, Vitis riparia (3I)
Kyboasca splendidaA stunning species with a distinct, unique pattern. Greenish overall with two bold blue stripes on the wings along the claval suture that are connected with a lateral blue band across the pronotum; when viewed from above, these blue lines form an elongated triangle. Some boldly marked individuals have orange bands bordering either side of the blue stripes on the wings. There is an orange mark on the anterior border of the blue pronotal stripe. There is a blue mark across much of the vertex. The wing tips have a dusky tint. The underside of the body and legs are green. Males are more brightly colored than females.Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Alders (Alnus sp.), Alnus incana, Alnus rugosa (3I)
Erythroneura bistrataA boldly marked but highly variable species with a yellow or white dorsum with a reddish-brown color pattern. All adults have an entirely dark thorax except for a pale base to the scutellum. This species has four main color forms, and then variation in-between. In the nominate form, individuals are reddish overall with mostly red wings and two white patches: one at the base of the fissure of the wings, next to the scutellum, and the other near the wing tips; there is also a white mark on the middle of the costal margin of each wing. A color variety of this form is almost entirely red, with only the white patch near the wing tips and a small spot at the base of the scutellum. Individuals of the form 'stricta' have two white bands across the wings that separate a median dark reddish-brown saddle; this dark saddle has a dagger-shaped point extending downwards on each wing; this form also has a paler tip to the head. Individuals of the form 'rubranota' have three white spots replacing the upper white band on the wing found in 'stricta'; the spots are separated by a a bold reddish-brown band extending along the clavus of each wing. Adults are 2.9-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For additional images of variation among individuals of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains where it is uncommon; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Redbud (Cercis canadensis); also reported from Vitis sp. (3I)
Stenocranus vittatusThis species very closely resembles S. lautus and in some instances there may not be a way to differentiate between the two. Charles Bartlett notes that he is "not sure that the two can be consistently separated without tails, but there is some coloration difference" (pers. comment). Hamilton (2006) notes that in S. vittatus, the dorsomedial length of the hind tibia is greater than that of the hind tarsus, whereas in S. lautus the lengths are essentially the same. Furthermore, males of S. vittatus are 4.5 mm or longer while females are 5.0 mm or longer; adults of S. lautus are listed at being 5-6 mm long. See vittatus and lautus for comparisons of pinned specimens. See here and here for two probable vittatus individuals that show the hind tibia longer than the hind tarsus. As in S. lautus, the head is rounded and the face is dark with a pale midline. (UDEL)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont, likely under collected and more abundant in the right habitat, but probably not a common species.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.
Erythroneura pontifexA fairly distinctive reddish-orange and yellow patterned species with two color forms that have smoky wingtips. In one form, the pattern on the thorax and scutellum, which is yellowish-orange in color, transitions and blends into reddish-orange markings on the wings. In the other color form, the body markings are yellow and the base of the wings are yellow, contrasting with a bright, bold 'saddle' in the middle of the wings. In both forms however, the top of the head has two bold black parallel lines with a pale midline. In some individuals, the black marks merge near the pronotum, forming a wide dark patch that encompasses much of the vertex. Adults are 2.8- 3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)A single record from the mountains, likely more abundant in this region.Vitis sp., Rubus sp. (3I)
Erythroneura integraA boldly marked species with three prominent red and black bands. The band going across the middle of the wings, which curves downward on each side toward the tips, is typically bicolored: the anterior part is dark brown to black, while the rest is red, characteristic of this species. In some individuals though almost the entire median band is red, lacking the black anterior border. The pronotum is dark brown to black, contrasting sharply with the pale, yellowish scutellum. The third band crosses the tips of the wings and is mostly blackish brown, with some red markings on the anterior side. Depending on the age of the individual, the vittae (stripes) on the wings can vary in color from yellow to red. Adults are 2.8 to 3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from several counties in the state, uncommon; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Primarily Ilex decidua, but also Vitis sp., Ulmus alata, and Cercis canadensis (3I)
Erythridula nr. asperaA pale species with a yellow, orange, or red color pattern and contrastingly dark brown wing tips and scutellum. The pronotum is pale with two longitudinal stripes, concolorous with the wing stripes.Recorded from a few counties in the mountains, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, open habitat near forest; likely prefers areas near birch.
Erythridula electaA somewhat distinctive member of this genus with a unique, prominent wing pattern. The body and base color of the wings are yellowish-white, sometimes with a pale blue tint. Most of the wings are dark, with a dark gray to brownish pattern, among the yellow to reddish-orange wing stripes, surrounding a pale, noticeable central pale mid section that has two distinct sections. The wing apieces, at least the upper apical cells, are pale. There are two prominent longitudinal stripes that extend from the edge of the scutellum across the pronotum before narrowing and merging at the tip of the head; the scutellum and stripes are concolorous with the wing pattern color. The face is brown or black, and the underside of the thorax is entirely dark; the abdomen is dark dorsally. Adults are 2.5-2.8 mm long. (3I)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and mountains, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Recorded recently from mixed hardwood, open forest habitat.Crataegus mollis, Crataegus sp. (3I)
Eratoneura osborniA species with a distinctive pattern with two color forms. Most individuals have a broad reddish transverse band across the base of otherwise pale yellowish wings. The red band extends to the costal margins of the wings, rather than tapering as in other species. In form 'dulicis,' the transverse band is a faded reddish color. The top of the head has yellow to orange parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The pronotum has a Y, V, or M-shaped yellow or reddish mark. The scutellum is yellowish, with darker lateral triangles; the face and underside of the thorax are pale. Adults are 2.7- 2.9 mm long. (3I)Has been recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains, where it can be locally common; likely more abundant in the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Hickories: Carya glabra, Carya illinoinensis, Carya leiodermis, Carya ovalis, Carya ovata, Carya tomentosa (3I)
Empoa rubricolaA pale, yellowish species with a single broad, dark brown transverse band across the middle of the wings; this band noticeably tapers near the costal margin, and the center of the band is narrower than the the sides. The apical cells of the wing are brownish, with a band of brown spots along the apical crossveins. The The head, pronotum, and scutellum are yellowish, with the latter sometimes having orange lateral triangles. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat, but not a common species.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Red oak, pin oak, Quercus sp. (Christian, 1953)
Eratoneura eraA pale yellowish species with a bold, distinctive but narrow reddish crossband that narrows basally (toward the wing edge). The shape of the crossband itself, and the extent of red, can vary among individuals; in some adults the red does not make it all the way to the wing edge, while in other individuals the crossband can appear faded. The top of the head has two parallel orange submedial lines, often with a lateral branch (giving the appearance of ciruclar white spots on the vertex), and the midline is a pale oval-shaped mark. The pronotum has a "Y" or "V"-shaped yellowish mark, and the scutellum is yellow. The face and underside of the thorax are pale. There is a black spot on the costal margin of the wings, as well as a bold one on the inner margin of each wing tip. Adults are 2.8- 3.1 mm long. (3I)Recorded from several counties across the state, primarily in the Piedmont, where it can be locally common; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Hickories (Carya sp.): Swamp Hickory (C. glabra), Shagbark Hickory (C. ovata), Mockernut Hickory (C. tomentosa), C. leiodermis, among other plants (3I)
Metcalfa pruinosa
Citrus Flatid Planthopper
The color of adult Metcalfa pruinosa varies considerably from brown to gray to partially dark blue, due chiefly to the presence or absence of a bluish white waxy powder coating the wings. A characteristic pair of dark spots is located in the basal half of each forewing, and there can be small pale spots across the rest of the wings. The eyes and legs are orange colored. Adults are usually 5.5 to 8 mm in length. Nymphs are less than twice as long as wide, and vary in size depending upon the growth stage . A mature nymph is approximately 4 mm long, not counting waxy filaments which break easily, and are white. Nymphs have a flat shape and can produce an extremely large amount of waxy filaments. Nymphs are pale in coloration, often appearing whitish, and have noticeable patches with pits, close to the head and on the thorax. In some individuals, there are dark spots present on the wing pads, reminiscent of the dark spots on the wings of adults; some individuals can completely lack these dark spots. Note that the head is very slightly rounded rather than completely flat across, a key characteristic when distinguishing from the very similar nymphs of F. proxima. (UFL)A fairly common species, recorded across the state with a majority of records coming from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Found in a variety of habitats, from grassy brushy areas to mixed hardwood forest.Extremely polyphagous, found on a variety of trees including: maples, dogwoods, hawthorns, willows, elms, privet, black locust, and alder. It can also be found on crop plants such as grape, citrus, apricot, peach, blackberry, and raspberry. (Wiki)
Cedusa unidentified speciesMixed hardwood forest, forest edge, grassy areas, etc.
Cedusa maculataA distinctive, boldly-marked species. Grayish to blackish overall, with dark spots on the wings giving a mottled appearance; this is the only Cedusa to have pale venation. The legs are colored similarly to that of the wings. Uncommon, with scattered records across the state, mostly in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL).
Liburniella ornata
Ornate Planthopper
Highly distinctive, there is no other species that looks like this. The wings have an ornate color pattern of black, white/gray, and orange, and the body itself is colored like the wings. The top of the head and thorax are orange with a bold white line down the middle, extending onto the frons (face) which is dark with light carinae (ridges). The non-flattened antennae are pale with a dark ring at the juncture of the two antennal segments. Nymphs are pale with two bold black bands down the sides; there are white spots speckled on the part of the dark band on the frons.Grassy and brushy habitat, as well as near forestsReported from the sedge Rhynchospora globularis, but probably polyphagous on sedges and maybe grasses (UDEL)
Entylia carinataA highly variable species. Adults have a characteristic pronotal shape that distinguishes this species from other NC treehoppers. Mature females have the front pronotal projection curving backwards, whereas males have shorter projections. Adults have orange colored legs and typically a dark underside to the thorax and abdomen. Adult males are 4.5 mm long while females are 5.0 mm. Nymphs have spiny projections and, as they age, develop a structure on the thorax that is reminiscent of the adults pronotal shape.An abundant species, recorded in a majority of the counties in the state; locally common where present. Seasonal distribution: 13 March-19 December (CTNC)Has been recorded in a variety of habitats, including montane and mixed hardwood forest and pine-dominanted areas.Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Ambrosia sp., Aster sp., Bidens bipinnata, B. coronata, Bidens sp., Conyza canadensis, Dahlia sp., Erechtites hieraciifolia, Erigeron sp., Eupatorium capillifolium, E. pilosum, Eupatorium sp., Glycine max, Helianthus anuus, H. tuberosus, Helianthus sp., Quercus palustris, Silphium sp., Solanum tuberosum, Solidago sp., Verbesina alternifolia, Vitis rotundifolia (CTNC)
Enchenopa binotata complex
Two-marked Treehopper
A dark, blackish-brown species with two distinctive yellowish marks down the back. The wings are mostly concolorous with the rest of the body, with rufous-tinted tips. Sexes can be distinguished from one another by the length of the horn- in females, the horn is noticeably long and prominent, while in males the horn is much smaller, sometimes nothing more than a little nub. Egg masses are whitish in color, resembling raised shells on a stem. Nymphs are blackish-brown, with a small forward-facing horn and spines down the middle of the abdomen. See here for a nice depiction of the life cycle of nymphs of this genus.Recorded throughout the state, with scattered records: uncommon. Seasonal distribution: 15 May-3 October (CTNC)Has been found in a variety of habitats, including grassy, brushy areas and mixed hardwood forest; where host plants are present.Carya sp., Cercis canadensis, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Robinia pseudoacacia, Viburnum prunifolium (CTNC)
Gyponana unidentified speciesThis page is for images of Gyponana that cannot be identified to species level. In order for a Gyponana ID to species level be possible, a clear image of the individual is necessary that shows wing venation and overall coloration. It is also extremely helpful to obtain a measurement of the individual, as that can help eliminate many possible choices for the species ID. Knowing the sex of the individual is also helpful.Common across the state.
Jikradia olitoriaA highly variable species with a variety of color forms. Some adults have one or two pale transverse bands on the wings, varying in boldness among individuals, while other individuals are bandless and have solid-colored wings. The wing color itself varies from yellow to orange to green to dark brown to almost black. Females tend to have the bands while males tend to lack bands and be darker overall, but there is a lot of variation among individuals of the same sex and females can be dark and lack bands and vice versa with males. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow. The female pregenital sternite is [typically] strongly produced with a convex, rounded posterior margin with a noticeable slit in the middle. Adults are typically 5.5-7.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

Nymphs are highly variable in coloration as well, but have extremely long hind legs and a narrow head.

A fairly common and widespread species, found from mountains to coast. Found in a variety of habitats, such as mixed hardwood forest, open woodland, forest edge, grassy areas, etc.Common on oak, sassafras, and similar vegetation (DeLong 1948)
Stirellus bicolorA very distinctive looking leafhopper, distinguished from other species by its very narrow head, with the eyes separated only by their own width (BG). This species is highly variable in color, with several different forms. The "summer", iridescent form has yellowish-green wings and thorax with noticeable bluish-black patches and lines. The head and thorax have three transverse black bands, and the face is black. However, some "summer" individuals can show faint or non-existent black markings. Other individuals can have a "stressed" appearance, showing the colorful body of the "summer" form but pale, almost transparent wings of the spring brood. A southern form, only occurring in the southern states, resembles the "summer" form except the wings are a solid bluish-black color. The "winter" form is brownish overall with some small black markings on the thorax and head. Depending on the temperature and time of year, some individuals can show traits of both "summer" and "winter" forms. Adult females can be distinguished from males, as they have an abdomen that extends far past the wing tips. Nymphs are a reddish-brown, purplish color but show the characteristic pointed, narrow head. A common and widespread species in the state, especially in the Piedmont and coastal plain, it can be found year-round. Abundance in the mountains is less certain.Grassy, brushy areas such as fields; also forest edge and open forest.A general grass feeder, including Andropogon spp. (bluestem and broomsedge) (BG).
Japananus hyalinus
Japanese Maple Leafhopper
A distinctive looking leafhopper. Adults have transparent wings, which can have a bluish, yellowish, or white tint. The wings typically have two to three transverse rufousy bands across the wings, though the bands might not be as apparent in some paler individuals and instead will be replaced by large dots. The wing venation typically is reddish. The head is distinctly pointed, and both the thorax and head are yellowish-green. Some individuals can show a grayish head and wing bands. Nymphs are also distinctive: they resemble Scaphytopius nymphs shape wise, but Japanese Maple nymphs have a much longer head and tail (BG). Nymphs have a pale yellowish-green body with a reddish-tipped abdomen.A locally common species, recorded from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Woodlands, mixed hardwood forests, shrubby areas, forest edge, open woodlands, etc.Maples, both native and non-native: Acer palmatum (Japanese maple), Acer circinatum, Acer rubrum (red maple), etc. (DL)
Exitianus exitiosus
Gray Lawn Leafhopper
A distinctive leafhopper that is a pale brown to grayish/silver color overall. There are black spots on the head and edge of the thorax, as well as a thin brown transverse band across the head; these marks are characteristic for this species. There are also two black triangles in the upper corners of the scutellum and a third, smaller triangle between the two larger ones. The wings are clear to silvery white with distinct, contrasting brown venation. The wings also typically extend slightly past the abdomen (BG). Legs are reddish in color. Nymphs are light brown overall but show the characteristic head markings found in the adults. A common species, recorded across the state with a majority of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Any grassy, field-type habitat, including forest edges.Turfgrasses, etc. This species has been taken from dozens of plants: for a large list of plants, see: DL.
Colladonus clitellarius
Saddled Leafhopper, Saddleback Leafhopper
A distinctive, boldly marked leafhopper. It has brown to black wings with a large yellow "saddle" on the middle of the back. Some individuals are a bit paler, with the dark pattern lighter or reddish. The scutellum is concolorous with the wings, and there is a broad yellow transverse band on the pronotum followed by a dark band on the base of the thorax and part of the head. Two small black dots are located on the edge of the head. The underside of the abdomen and thorax are yellow. Adults are 5.0-6.0 mm long.Uncommon to locally common, scattered records across the state.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Often feeds on willows, though will forage on many other plants as well, such as Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust), Platanus sp., Triticum sp., Polygonum perfoliatum (mile a minute vine), and vitis sp. (DL).