Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Doleranus vividusGreenish in color with a brown tinge and lacking any definite markings. The vertex is almost twice as wide as it is long. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly, triangularly notched half way to the base; there is a tooth at the apex. The male subgenital plates are triangular, tapering to slightly divergent finger-like apexes. Adults are 5.5-6.0 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

For some diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains; a very uncommon species.Grassy areas in meadows along streams, valleys, and open woodland (DeLong, 1948)
Doleranus longulusBrownish-yellow, marked with reddish-brown; the chestnut-colored wings have pale venation, outlined with darker infuscations inside each wing cell. The vertex is twice as wide as it is long, with a somewhat rounded, pointed tip. The ocelli are white, connected by a white transverse line along the margin. The pronotum is fulvous, with dark brown markigns on the anterior portion; the scutellum is the same color but has dark lateral triangles. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin depressed, slightly and angularly elevated. The male subgenital plates are rounded with almost parallel-margined tips. Adults are 5-6 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

For some diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

A single record for the state from the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat. Metcalf (1967) lists the species for North Carolina but it is unclear from where.Wooded floodplains, along stream banks, etc. (DeLong, 1948)Herbaceous plants
Erythroneura aclysA very distinctive dark Erythroneura with an underlying yellow or white dorsum. There are two symmetrical blackish bands on the wings that connect near the base of the wings and extend to the tip of the head, forming a sharp dark point when viewed from above; the way these bands extend to the head is distinctive. The margins of the pronotum are a pale yellow color, distinctive for this species; the scutellum is entirely black. The sides of the wings have white, blue, and red markings bordering the main dark bands. The center of the wings has a white "four-petaled" pattern with a red dot in the center; the size of the white marks varies among individuals, ranging from large to nonexistent. The face and thoracic venter are entirely pale. Nymphs are yellowish overall. Adults are 2.7-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, only recorded a few times from a couple counties in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Redbud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)
Scaphoideus atlantusTypically an amber yellow color with a white to cream colored crown (top of the head) and an orange transverse band between the eyes. The eyes themselves have a white longitudinal line flanked with black through them. The face is pale overall, being cream to light brown with several somewhat faint brown lines near the crown margin. The pronotum is largely a uniform amber yellow to orange and the scutellum is yellowish-orange overall. The forewings, in coparison to other Scaphoideus, appear as a mostly uniform color with few pale or dark wing cell. The wings have the anterior three-fourths an amber yellow color while the latter fourth has some white translucent cells. Wing venation is brown, darker near the tips. The legs are yellowish-white and the underside of the body is a pale yellowish-brown color. The female pre-genital sternite is pale yellowish-brown with a posterior dark medial area on the outer margin; there is a deep notch in the middle, with concave margins on either side of the notch and the lateral margins straight. Male plates are yellow to orange. Adult males are 5.0-6.0 mm long while females are 5.1-5.7 mm. (Barnett 1976) For more images of several spinned specimens, see: BOLD. Rare, recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; possibly under collected and more abundant in the right habitat.Probably mixed hardwood forest and similar habitats.Cottonwood, ragweed, mustard, marvel pea, Dipsacus, Ulmus americana, Fagus, European elm, ash, Ulmus alata, Tillia americana, etc. (Barnett 1976)
Macrosteles slossoniA distinctively marked blackish-green species, with females slightly larger than males. Adults have a black and yellowish-green pattern on the scutellum, pronotum, head, and face; there are three pairs of spots on the vertex and one next to each eye. Males tend to have darker and bolder markings on the head and pronotum than females. The wings are typically a grayish color with a dark diamond-shaped pattern. Some individuals can be quite dark though, with darker wings. The female pregenital sternite is relatively straight across the posterior margin. Male genital plates are triangular with pointed attenuated apexes that slightly diverge from one another. Adults are around 2.5-3.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

For more images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.

Recorded from several counties in the mountains, possibly more abundant in the right habitat, especially in higher elevation areas.Grassy areas, such as shores and wet places, where its host plants grow (BG)Sedges and rushes (Juncus spp.) (BG); swamp grasses
Stobaera pallidaA tan or light brown species. The wings have a dark brown pattern that mostly covers parts of the middle and top of the wings; there are small black spots spaced out across the veins. In females, the dark markings of the forewings are absent or pale whereas in males they are bold and distinct. There are several key characteristics that help separate pallida from the other two species of Stobaera that may be found in North Carolina. In S. pallida, the lateral carinae (ridges) of the frons are distinctly bowed and the frons is tan, marked with creamy spots and no dark bands; the interocular portion of the frons is not darker than the rest of the frons. The legs are also not ringed with brown and are instead pale. Additionally, the vertex is noticeably wider than it is long: compare the vertex of pallida with that of tricarinata. Males of pallida are 3.2 - 4.0 mm long while females are 3.5 - 4.8 mm. (Kramer, 1973), (UDEL)Uncommon, recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant in the right habitat. Primarily a coastal plain species.Has been found in grassy areas and forest edge. Baccharis halimifolia (eastern baccharis) (UDEL)
Shellenius balliiA distinctly colored species with characteristic red and dark markings. The head, which is proportionately longer than in other similar Derbids, has a broad red band that extends across the entire length. This band narrows on the sides of the thorax, continuing onto the wings where it considerably widens up and darkens toward the wing tips; the wing venation in this widened band is the same bright red color as the beginning of the band while the wing cells in between the veins are a dark blackish-brown color, sometimes appearing spotted. The rest of the wings, thorax and head are a pale yellow color.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single record from both the mountains and Piedmont.Acer (maple), Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam), Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus (ash) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Otiocerus abbotiiA distinctive member of this genus, it has pale, yellowish wings with small black spots scattered across the wings and along the tips. The rest of the body is mostly concolorous with the yellowish color of the wings. Adults are 9 mm long. See here for a nice image of an adult: BG.Uncommon to rare, scattered records across the state; can occur in high abundance in some locations, such as at Bald Head Island.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL). Adults have been found on Quercus (oak) (BHL).
Cyrpoptus belfrageiA large species, with males being 12 mm long while females are 14 mm (BG). Adults have colorful, patterned wings with a pinkish tinge to them. The wing venation is intricate and dense, and there are pale to clear cells near the apex of the wings and along the wing margin; there sometimes is a white diagonal streak on each wing, near the base, with a black border on one side. The hind wings have a black tip and bright red base; see here. The top of the head is short and flat, slightly pointed. The head (vertex) and face are pale, yellowish in color; sometimes the thorax is also yellow.Uncommonly encountered, a handful of records from the Coastal Plain and eastern Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the state, especially near the coast.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat.Eragrostis curvula (weeping lovegrass, Poaceae), Muhlenbergia reverchonii (seep muhly), Piptochaetium avenaceum (blackseed speargrass); Pinus sp. (pine, Pinaceae) (UDEL)
Chlorotettix galbanatusThis species is greenish overall, with a yellowish to reddish-brown tint on the wings and thorax. The hindwing venation is a dark reddish-brown, contrasting with the transparent forewing membranes; this gives the wings a netted look. The posterior part of the pronotum and lateral triangles of the scutellum are also a light reddish-brown color. The head (vertex) is slightly wider than the pronotum, and the eyes are typically dark/black. The female pregenital sternite is distinctive with a deep, narrow slit surrounded by rounded lobes. The male has a depressed inner area at the base of the subgenital plates, appearing as if the plates are dented; otherwise, the plates are evenly and convexly rounded brom the bases to the apexes, and the apexes are obtusely angled. Adults are around 6.0-6.5 mm long. (DeLong 1918), (DeLong 1948) For more images and diagrams of this species, see: Bg and Dmitriev.Locally common; recorded across the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.?
Cyarda melichariA characteristic genus with the wings distally narrowed and coming to a point, giving them an elongate appearance. Adults have grayish-brown wings with some scattered black mottling. For more images of this species, see here and here.Previously reported from NC (though unclear where). Probably more likely to be encountered along the coast.Weedy areasLantana camara (Verbenaceae) (UDEL)
Stenocranus vittatusThis species very closely resembles S. lautus and in some instances there may not be a way to differentiate between the two. Charles Bartlett notes that he is "not sure that the two can be consistently separated without tails, but there is some coloration difference" (pers. comment). Hamilton (2006) notes that in S. vittatus, the dorsomedial length of the hind tibia is greater than that of the hind tarsus, whereas in S. lautus the lengths are essentially the same. Furthermore, males of S. vittatus are 4.5 mm or longer while females are 5.0 mm or longer; adults of S. lautus are listed at being 5-6 mm long. See vittatus and lautus for comparisons of pinned specimens. See here and here for two probable vittatus individuals that show the hind tibia longer than the hind tarsus. As in S. lautus, the head is rounded and the face is dark with a pale midline. (UDEL)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, likely under collected and more abundant in the right habitat, but probably not a common species.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.
Pediopsoides distinctusA distinctively colored species. Males are yellowish, with the face, head, legs, and pronotum yellow; there is fuscous speckled across the pronotum and scutellum. In some dark individuals, almost the entire body is blackish brown. The wings are dark brown with a large pale spot near the apex of the wings, along the costa, and a smaller pale spot on the inner margin of the wings, in the middle. Females are greenish-yellow, with some fuscous spotting on the pronotum and scutellum. The hind leg can be bluish-green, contrasting with the yellowish front legs. The wings are not as dark as those of the male but have a similar pattern. Adult males are 3.8-4.4 mm long, while females are 4.2-4.7 mm. (Hamilton 1983) For more images of this species, see: BG.

Nymphs are greenish, flecked with fuscous spots all over the body, with a short head that sometimes has a transverse row of four black spots across the face. (Hamilton 1983)

Uncommon with several scattered records across the state, possibly more abundant in the state in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy areas near mixed hardwood, cypress forest.Black walnut (Juglans nigra), butternut (Juglans cinerea); this is the only New-World member of Macropsini that is known to feed on walnut (Hamilton 1983).
Jikradia olitoriaA highly variable species with a variety of color forms. Some adults have one or two pale transverse bands on the wings, varying in boldness among individuals, while other individuals are bandless and have solid-colored wings. The wing color itself varies from yellow to orange to green to dark brown to almost black. Females tend to have the bands while males tend to lack bands and be darker overall, but there is a lot of variation among individuals of the same sex and females can be dark and lack bands and vice versa with males. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow. The female pregenital sternite is [typically] strongly produced with a convex, rounded posterior margin with a noticeable slit in the middle. Adults are typically 5.5-7.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

Nymphs are highly variable in coloration as well, but have extremely long hind legs and a narrow head.

A fairly common and widespread species, found from mountains to coast. Found in a variety of habitats, such as mixed hardwood forest, open woodland, forest edge, grassy areas, etc.Polyphagous. Common on oak, sassafras, and similar vegetation (DeLong 1948); also reported from grape, corn, shrubs, apple, hawthorn, peach, willow, ash, etc. (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017). C. o. olitoria is a vector of the disease, strawberry pallidosis (BG).
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Agalliopsis ancistraTypically a greenish species, with the rear of the wings fading to a brownish tint; coloration does range to tawny and brownish. The face and eyes can be reddish in color, and there is a 'double-mark' on the top of the wings where the green color meets the brown. In addition, the scutellum is usually yellow with two small black triangles in each top corner (sometimes the scutellum is almost completely black in some individuals). Lastly, there are 8 dots on the body; 2 on the pronotum and 6 on the face (3 next to each eye). Some individuals can be brownish in color but still retain the small pronotal spots with a pronotum that is not excessively bulging. These males have the pronotum entirely fuscous except for pale posterior and lateral borders and pale areas directly adjacent to the midline; these individuals tend to have fuscous to smoky wings with contrasting broadly pale veins and the clavus and on the disc. Females have a pregenital sternite that is deeply concave, with a deep U-shaped emargination from the base; the sternite is often brown fuscous, either basally or entirely. Adult males are 3.5- 4.0 mm long, while females are 4.0- 4.3 mm. (Oman 1970)

For more images of this species showing variation, see: (BG).

This species has been recorded across the state, where it can be locally abundant; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Recorded in the state from grassy, shrubby habitat and near forest edge.
Agalliopsis novellaGenerally light brown or yellowish-green to nearly black in color, but can be extremely variable; males are usually darker than females. In NC, individuals have tended to have a mostly blackish body, with dark wings and a dark pronotum; this is reported by Oman (1970) as a frequently found color form. Some individuals have a mostly black scutellum and pronotum while others show more yellow; in these paler individuals, there is a median stripe on the pronotum. The legs and head/face are usually a bold yellow, contrasting with the blackish body, but can be a brownish color too in some specimens. There are six black dots on the yellow face: two above each eye and one below the upper two dots, near the center of the face. Some of the wing venation is also yellow, and the underside of the abdomen is a blackish yellow. Females have a pregenital sternite that is deeply concave, with a deep U-shaped emargination from the base. Male genitalia description is as follows: "valve short, emarginate posteriorly; plates semi-tubular, bluntly rounded at apexes, and scarcely covering the opening of the large genital chamber" (DeLong 1948), distinctive and characteristic of this species; essentially, the male visual genitalia is short and squat without any notable emarginations. Adult males are 3.3- 3.5 mm long while females are 3.75- 4.0 mm. (Oman 1970)Recorded from the mountains and Piedmont where it seems to be uncommon but can be locally common; probably more abundant in the right habitat. This species has been found in open mixed hardwood forest as well as grassy, montane meadowsPotato, Clover; common on herbaceous vegetation. A. novella has been known to transmit the Potato yellow dwarf virus (Nucleorhabdovirus) and therefore can affect potato crops. In addition, it is considered to be the most important vectors of clover club leaf virus and one of the most important vectors of wound tumor virus in the country. It is the only species of Agalliopsis that is a vector (A. novella).
Agalliopsis cervinaA very distinctively marked species in this genus. A brownish or greenish-brown species with a bold white crossband across the wings, varying in width and extent among individuals. The pronotum and head can also be pale as well. There are typically four bold black spots on the edge of the pronotum and the edge of the head, and the eyes also overlap/cover the edge of the pronotum.Seemingly uncommon to rare with only a handful of records for the state, but possibly more abundant in the right habitat and under collected.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and in grassy vegetation near montane forest habitat; also in maritime shrub.
A species with a characteristic bulging pronotum that is more strongly produced than in most other members of the genus; therefore the pronotal spots tend to lie between the eyes rather than behind them. This species typically has some of the largest pronotal spots among members of this genus (BG), with only A. novella also having large spots (though it seems these spends tend to blend in with the rest of the body coloration in dark individuals of A. novella). The vertex is shorter width-wise in the middle than next to the eyes. While this species is usually a brownish to black-and-green color, some individuals can have very different colors. The female seventh sternite (the one before the genitalia) is truncate rather than concave in shape. Male genitalia plates are elongated and constricted in the middle. Adults are 4.0- 4.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Recorded recently from several counties in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Found so far in North Carolina in mixed hardwood forest or forest edge habitat.
Catonia bicincturaA dark brown and reddish species. The wings are mostly uniformly brown, with faint whitish patches to the outer edge of the wings; some individuals may show an indistinct broad white transverse band on part of the wings. The wing veins are pale with many small black spots along their length. The thorax is a bold reddish color, and the head is yellowish-brown. The underside of the body is dark reddish-brown, and the legs are dark. The face is an orange-brown color, with two bold white transverse lines. Adults are 4.2-5.1 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)An uncommon species, recorded across the state with a majority of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant in areas with pine and beautyberry.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and pine forest.Pine (Pinus sp.), Callicarpa americana (American beautyberry, Verbenaceae) (UDEL)
Stobaera tricarinataKramer (1973) notes that "the forewing varies from nearly immaculate to strongly marked with fuscus like concinna or rarely nearly entirely fuscus. The interocular portion of the frons is tan in females to fuscus in males, followed by a pale and then blackish transverse band; the central portion of the frons is pale and unmarked in both sexes, the basal portion of the frons on each side of the central carina is almost always darkened with fuscus or black. The clypeus is either unmarked or lightly marked with fuscus. The otherwise pale legs are ringed with fuscus to black." Note that all of the Stobaera species are similar in appearance, but the face pattern is a key characteristic for distinguishing species. Also note that in tricarinata (and concinna), the vertex is about as wide as it is long, contrasting with the noticeably wider vertex of pallida. Males are 2.8 - 4.6 mm long while females are 2.9 - 4.8 mm. (Kramer, 1973), (UDEL)Uncommon to locally common, recorded across the state.Probably near grassy areasAmbrosia spp. (ragweed), Helianthus argophyllus (silverleaf sunflower) (UDEL)
Stobaera concinnaA somewhat dark species with a dark brown pronotum. The wings have a dark pattern, and there are black spots spaced out along the veins. The legs are banded black and light brown. The antennae, eyes, and interocular portion of the frons are a medium brown color, contrasting with the rest of the mostly pale frons and clypeus. At the top of the clypeus is a dark interrupted circular mark. Males are 2.5 - 4.0 mm long while females are 3.2 - 4.5 mm (Kramer, 1973).

Note that all of the Stobaera species are similar in appearance, but the face pattern and dark pronotum are key characteristics for distinguishing S. concinna from the other two species found in North Carolina. For information, sketches, and a key to the nymph instars of this species, see: Calvert. (UDEL)

A single record from the Coastal Plain.Probably grassy areas or open forestAmbrosia spp., Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Santa Maria feverfew) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Paraphlepsius quadratusA dark brownish species with a noticeably pointed and produced crown that is sharply angled to the face. The male subgenital plates are elongate and triangular. The female pregenital sternite has the median lobes noticeably shorter than the lateral lobes on the posterior margin; there is a prominent excavation between the lobes, with a small median notch and a discernible indentation down the middle. Adult males are 5.9-6.4 mm long, females are 6.3-7.0 mm. (Hamilton 1975) Nymphs are dark brownish overall and show the characteristic pointed head that the adults have.

For images of specimens of this species, see: BOLD and BG.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain
Atymna castaneaeA yellowish-green species with a prominent dark brown 'band' along much of the length of each wing and a concolorous dark tip. See here for images of this species: BG.No recent records. Seasonal distribution: 23 May-31 August (CTNC)Castanea dentata, C. pumila (CTNC)
Atymna querciA sexually dimorphic species. Males are dark, a dark brown to black color with two prominent yellow marks down the center of the pronotum. Sometimes these yellow dots are connected, forming a single yellow mark. The legs, head, and front part of the thorax are also yellowish in males, and the abdomen is a dark brown. The tegmina are smoky hyaline and the underside of the thorax and abdomen are brown to black. Females are completely green, with the tegmina entirely hyaline and the underside of the body also green. Adult males are 6 mm long while females are 7 mm (Kopp 1973).

Nymphs are greenish overall.

Seasonal distribution: 14 April-8 September (CTNC)Has been found in a variety of habitats, including near mixed hardwood forestQuercus alba, Q. stellata, Vitis rotundifolia (CTNC)
Graminella planaA pale yellowish-orange species with four small but prominent black dots on the anterior margin of the vertex; the ocelli are also black, giving the impression of two more dots. The vertex is bluntly angled, one-fourth wider between the eyes than the median length. The face is pale, concolorous with the vertex. The wings are yellowish-orange with pale venation. The female pregenital sternite has short lateral margins, with rounded lobes on either side of a broad, sunken, truncated or slightly produced portion in the middle of the segment that is embrowned. The male subgenital plates are short and broad, with broad apices that are bluntly rounded. Adults are around 3.5-4.0 mm long. (DeLong & Mohr 1937)

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and Piedmont, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and in grassy areas.
Graminella fitchiiYellow to dull greenish overall, this species has a bold contrast between the whitish wing venation and five pale transverse longitudinal lines on the pronotum and the straw-colored body and wings. There are four small black dots along the margin of the vertex, and 2 anteapical wing cells, helping differentiate this species from other similar looking species such as Deltocephalus. The face is pale, with various shades of brown, characteristic of this species. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly excavated on either side of a median slightly produced with a broad, sunken tooth. The male genital plates are long, gradually tapering to bluntly pointed apexes. Adults are around 4.5 mm long. (DeLong & Mohr 1937)

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser. For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties across the state, but likely more abundant in the state in the right habitat.Fields and other similar, grassy habitatsGrasses. Its host is Leersia virginica, white cutgrass (BG)
Ossiannilssonola unidentified speciesAdults are whitish to yellowish-white with three brown to black dots of even intensity anterior to the apical crossveins in the inner three basal cells. Mixed hardwood forest
Empoa saffranaA yellowish species with the basal two-thirds of the wings unmarked; in teneral specimens, the wings are ivory-white. The apex of the wings have four or more dark brown spots around the apical crossveins; these spots, together with the yellow wings, distinguish this species from others. In some individuals, the spots may not be as bold, but together they form an arced 'band' along the apical crossveins. The wingtips are largely hyaline. (Hamilton, 1983)Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Reported from Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), beech (Fagus grandifolia), American elm (Ulmus americana), Ulmus sp. (Hamilton 1983)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythroneura octonotataA yellowish to orange species with two prominent small black spots on the middle of the wings along the commissure. There are two yellow or orange parallel submedial lines on the top of the head, with a broad white midline in between. The pronotum has a Y to M-shaped mark, sometimes with the anterior margin colored as well. Much of the scutellum is black except for the lateral triangles; this bold black scutellum is diagnostic for this species, though in some specimens the scutellum is pale. The black mesonotum sometimes is visible through the pronotum. The costal margin of the wings has a small black mark in the middle, and the wing tips are smudged with brown; there is a bold pair of black spots along the inner margin of the wings near the tips. In var. rufomaculata, the clavi of the wings is a bold, bright red. In all forms, the face and thoracic venter are pale. Adults are 2.6-2.9 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

A few recent records from the mountains and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest. Rubus sp., Vitis sp., Cercis canadensis, Ilex decidua, Ulmus alata, Aesculus sp. (3I)
Cyrtolobus dixianusA species with a fairly distinctive color pattern compared to other members of this genus. Males have coarser but sparser punctuation on their pronotum, as well as a shinier surface, than that of the female. Males have a yellowish green face and a dark pronotum, sometimes with pale spots and sometimes with transverse pale bands with a median spot. The body beneath is bright green, and the tergum of the abdomen is black, sometimes infringing on the green of ventral segments. The male's genital organs are black, legs are a bright yellowish-green. The forewings are hyaline, darker towards the rear. Females are a light green, sometimes yellowish color with pale spots. The face is a brighter yellow, as well as the sides of the abdomen. The eyes are green, centrally reddish brown. The pronotum is moderately arched, highest in the middle, and the body beneath is green. The forewings are hyaline, their veins greenish and distinct. The legs are green with rosy claws. Adult males are 6.5 mm long while females are 7.5 mm. (Kopp)Uncommon, only a handful of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Seasonal distribution: 26 April-26 May (CTNC)Quercus alba, Q. falcata, Q. palustris, Q. stellata (CTNC)
Otiocerus coquebertiiA boldly marked species with forked red bands on otherwise pale, whitish wings, running along the claval suture of the wings before forking towards the apices. There is an additional small red dash on the wings, below the main red band on the clavus. The red lines continue onto the sides of the thorax, extending as a broad red stripe across the sides of the head; the short antennae are also reddish. The head is large and rostrate, and the legs are pale. Adults are about 8.75 mm long. (Dozier 1922)

Some individuals of this species are almost entirely red, a very striking appearance. This form is infrequently encountered and is known as var. rubidus.

Scattered records across the state, primarily in the Piedmont and mountains, where it is uncommon to scarce; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Near mixed hardwood forest.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found to associate with Fagus (Beach, Fagaceae), Quercus (Oak, Fagaceae), and Acer (maple, Aceraceae). (UDEL)
Prosapia bicincta
Two-lined Spittlebug
A distinctive species, adults are black with two orange lines crossing the wings and have red eyes, reddish legs, and a reddish underside. However, some adults can be completely black on top, lacking any lines across the wings: Black Form. This seems to be a feature mostly among individuals of the Northeast and other parts of the country and has only been recorded recently (probable record) once in North Carolina; very uncommon to rare form in this state. Adults are 8-10 mm in length BG. Nymphs are usually concealed in their spittle but are black with a red abdomen: Nymph.Common and widespread across the state, recorded from the mountains to the coastal plain.Found in a variety of habitats, ranging from mixed hardwood forests to grassy, field-type areas. A generalist species.Nymphs feed on centipedegrass, bermudagrass and other grasses, including occasionally corn. Adults feed on hollies, foraging on the underside of leaves- damage shows up as pale mottling not usually visible from above BG. This species has also been associated with Asimina, Ilex, Cucurbita, Glycine, Trifolium, and Eremochioa ophiuroides (DL).
Telamona extremaA large species with a broad, tall, rounded pronotal crest that slightly angles forward. The top of the pronotal crest is edged in red, and the posterior edge is yellow. The pronotum itself is usually a light brown color, but some individuals can have a greenish tint; there may be some light maculations across the pronotum in some specimens as well. The wings have a smoky tip, and the legs are concolorous with the pronotum. Males are 8-9 mm long while females are 9-10 mm (FSCA). A somewhat rare species, recorded from several counties across the state.Forest with oakQuercus
Empoa gilletteiA yellowish species with a bold, prominent wing pattern that can strongly vary among individuals. There is a dark median transverse brown band that extends straight to the costal margins; this band can vary in width among individuals. The wing tips are bicolored: the apical crossveins are strongly infuscated but the wing tips themselves are lightly infuscated and typically appear pale, providing a noticeable contrast with the crossveins. As a result of the pale tips, dark crossveins, and median transverse band, the wings appear double-banded. Note that the extent to which the crossveins and surrounding cells are infuscated can strongly vary among individuals; sometimes the margin of the tips can be infuscated, kind of 'cupping' the rest of the pale area. The head and pronotum are yellowish-white to bright yellow, the scutellum ranges from yellowish-orange to dark brown. The abdomen is yellow with basal half of the dorsum of three basal segments black; the underside is yellowish-white. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Christian, 1953), (Hamilton, 1983)

For more pics of this species showing the range of variation in color and pattern, see: BG.

Scattered records across the Piedmont and mountains where it can be locally common; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and higher elevation forest.Recorded hosts include at least 6 families of deciduous trees, including birches (Betula sp.), alders (Alnus sp.), maple (Acer sp.), hickory (Carya sp.), cherry (Prunus sp.), oak (Quercus sp.), and willow (Salix sp.) (3I)
Ossiannilssonola hineiA very distinctive species. Chalky white overall, with two transverse dark brown bands across the wings: one across the base of the wings and the other before the apical crossveins. The wing venation is white; the abdomen is yellow. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded from a few counties in the mountains and Piedmont, rare; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near montane and suburban mixed hardwood forest.White Oak (Quercus alba) (Christian, 1953)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Empoa castaA pale yellowish species, with a yellowish-white to light yellow head, pronotum, and scutellum; sometimes the scutellum is a deep yellow to yellowish-brown. The wings are yellowish-white to whitish with a dark brown transverse band across the middle of the wings. This band is oblique on the corium (outer part of the wing), curving downwards to the costal margins (instead of transversing straight across the wings); this band is narrow and sometimes consists of only several spots or slight traces of of brown near the costal margin. The transverse band is as bold as, but not bolder than the dark brown infuscations around the apical crossveins: the spots around the apical crossveins form a band of their own, typically consisting of four spots in the inner three basal and first apical cells to eight or nine spots in these cells. Individuals that only have four spots making up the apical band usually lack a median transverse band. The abdomen has the dorsum of each segment black on the basal half; the underside of these segments is black in males, yellow or white in females. Adults are 3.25-3.75 mm long. (Christian, 1954)

For images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a few counties in the mountains and Piedmont; likely under colelcted and tehrefore more abundant in the right habitat.Quercus alba, Q. macrocarpa, Quercus sp. (Christian, 1954)
Aplos simplexA distinctive looking species in this genus. Adults are mostly unicolorous and brownish in color, with bold dark wing venation; young adults though may be uniformly greenish in color, with the body and wings darkening as the adults age. The head, legs, and part of thorax are typically greenish. The head is fairly round and flat, without any prominent lateral margins.

Nymphs are greenish overall with orange longitudinal stripes down the body. Like the adult, the head of the nymph is characteristically rounded, separating this from the similar nymphs of T. quinquata which have pointed heads. Young nymph instars are orange-green and have some black spots on either side of the midline of the abdomen. For more information about the nymphs and their various instar stages, see W & W 1988.

Uncommon, not encountered very often; scattered records across the state. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Polyphagous on dicots (UDEL); on various herbs, shrubs, and trees.
Eupteryx nigraA dark, mostly blackish species. The vertex is a dirty yellow color, the face is yellow to white. The pronotum and scutellum are entirely blackish brown. The wings are almost entirely blackish brown, concolorous with the thorax, except for along the costal margin. There is a yellow stripe along almost the entire length of the costal margin, extending almost to the apical cross veins; the costal margin itself is a bold, contrasting yellow. The width of this yellow stripe varies among individuals, with some largely lacking the stripe; note that in individuals with thicker stripes, the yellow does not take up the entirety of the outer basal cell and remains more or less straight. The underside of the thorax and abdomen are yellow, except for the pregenital sternite of males which is a solid brown; the abdomen is dark brown above with yellow segments. The subgenital plates are somewhat triangular in shape, with broad bases that strongly taper. Teneral individuals have two red longitudinal lines on the sides of the midline on the head, and the pronotum has a median red transverse line; there are red markings on the pronotum behind each eye. Adults are 3.7- 4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1956)Recorded recently from the mountains and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat, especially in that region.Has been found near montane mixed forest; a woodland species.Ferns (Polypodiaceae) (3I)
Eupteryx omaniA dark, mostly blackish species. The vertex is a dirty yellow color, the face is yellow to white. The pronotum and scutellum are entirely blackish brown. The wings are almost entirely blackish brown, concolorous with the thorax, except for along the costal margin. The outer basal cell along the costal margin is yellow to white, with this pale coloration extending to the apical cross veins; therefore, the pale coloration widens posteriorly since the cell widens. The costal margin itself is a bold yellow. The underside of the thorax and abdomen are yellow; the abdomen is brown above. Adults are 3.0- 3.25 mm long. (Christian, 1956)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood and open forest habitat. Ferns (Polypodiaceae); collected from southern woodfern (Dryopteris ludoviciana) (Christian, 1956)
Eupteryx decemnotata
Ligurian Leafhopper
A fairly distinctively marked species. Wings are yellowish green with characteristic darker polygon-shaped marks scaattered; the apical wing veins are yellow, bordered with dark brown. The scutellum is yellowish, sometimes with two black spots in the middle. The head has a characteristic even number of bold black spots. Usually there are 5 pairs of dots, with four dots along the midline of the vertex, two black marks along the margin of the vertex, and 4 dots in a row across the face; however, spots are sometimes fused together. Adults are between 2 and 3 mm long. (Rung, 2009)

For more images of this species, see: 1, 2, 3.

A few records from the Piedmont; unclear what the status of this species is in the state and whether there are any well established populations. Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, but likely found anywhere herbs and ornamentals occur in high number. A variety of herbs and ornamentals in the Lamiaceae family: rosemary, sage, majoram, catnip, oregano, lemon balm, peppermint, basil, thyme, etc. (Rung, 2009)
Eupteryx flavoscutaA dark species with a variable color pattern. The scutellum is a characteristic yellow with dark brown lateral angles; the pronotum is either a uniform dark brown to blackish color or dark with a yellowish-brown disc. The vertex is a dirty yellow to brownish color; the face and underside of the body are a bright yellow. The wings tend to be dark brown to blackish with a greenish-yellow middorsal spot (larger in some individuals) and a broad yellow stripe along the costal margin of the wings, from the base to the apical crossveins. Some individuals however are quite dark and largely lack the yellow middorsal spot. One of the apical cells is also largely white. The abdomen is dark brown dorsally, finely bordered with yellow dividing segments, and is yellow underneath. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1956)

Nymphs are mostly yellow with a reddish thorax and wing stubs and a white edge to the head.

Scattered records across the state, more common in the mountains; likely more abundant across the state, especially where ferns are present.Has been found near mixed hardwood and higher elevation forest- where ferns are present.Common on ferns (Polypodiaceae), Pteris aquilina (3I)
Megamelus palaetusBeamer notes that this species is yellowish-brown in color, mottled with dark brown. There is a spot before the apex of the clavus and the veins of the elytra are dark brown, sometimes bold. There is a dark spot in the middle of the inner margins of the wings. The legs and underside of the head and thorax are banded with black, yellow, and tan/white. The face is also mottled with dark bands, characteristic of this species. Brachypters are similar to macropters but tend to be lighter in color. The largest member of this genus in our area, macropterous males are 5.0 mm long while females are 5.5 mm. (Beamer, 1955)Uncommon to locally common, recorded across the state. Probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy areas near mixed hardwood forest.Eichornia crassipes; Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae); broadleaf arrowhead - Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae), Paspalum sp. (Poaceae); Jatropha integerrima; Euphorbiaceae; Laurel (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Deltanus texanusA stunning, beautifully-marked, unmistakeable leafhopper. Adults have a grayish-blue body with long, bold red longitudinal stripes running across the back. Some of the rear wing cells are dark brown. The head is rounded and the face is dark. Nymphs are also distinctively marked: several bold rufous lines run longitudinally on an otherwise pale body. A few recent records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant (likely in the coastal plain) in the right habitat.Has been found in pine forest with lots of brushy and grassy ground vegetation.
Erythroneura rubrellaA colorful species with a bluish-white body and a reddish color pattern. The two reddish-orange bands on the wings extending downwards from the thorax typically have sharp right angles on the inside, forming a bluish "box". The bluish pattern on the lower, middle half of the wings resembles the outline of an arrowhead when viewed from above, with an orange center. The mesonotum is pale, ranging in color from yellow to orange. The pronotum is largely orange, with a broad "M" shape extending across it; the rest of the pronotum is bluish. The top of the head has a yellowish-green to orange pattern with parallel submedial lines; the midline of the head however is orange to red, a key characteristic for this species. The face is brown or black, and the thoracic venter is entirely dark. Adults are 2.7-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Scattered records from several counties in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been recorded in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Cornus pumila, C. stolonifera (Dogwood) (3I)
Erythroneura rubraA boldly marked species with a strongly developed red-blue color pattern on the wings and body. The top of the head has two reddish orange parallel submedial lines, with a pale midline between (characteristic of this species); the submedial lines are typically broad and bold, somewhat "L" shaped. The pronotum has a "Y" or "V" shaped reddish mark in the middle and a red bar on the lateral margins; the rest of the pronotum is pale blue. The mesonotum is mostly dark red. The underside of the thorax is dark, and the anteclypeus is typically pale, concolorous with the face. The wings have a dark orange to red color pattern that contrasts with a pale blue base. There are three blue marks near the middle of the wings whose outline resembles that of an arrow; the wing tips are dark. The face is pale, and the thoracic venter is entirely dark. Adults are 2.9-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)
Recorded across the state, primarily in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; probably more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Vitis spp., Rubus sp., Ilex decidua, among others (3I)
Paraphlepsius irroratus
Bespeckled Leafhopper
A slender, highly mottled leafhopper; the slenderness can help separate this species from most others in this genus. The wings, thorax, and head are densely reticulated, and this species is usually dark in color overall. Both the male and female have distinctive abdominal tips- the male's subgenital plates have concave lateral margins and finger-like, elongate tips. The female pregenital sternite is tridentate (3 sharp spines at the base of the ovipositor) with an M-shaped excavation. Males are 5.0-5.8 mm long, while females are 5.8-6.7 mm. (Hamilton 1975)

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

A common species, recorded across the state in all three regions. Mixed hardwood forest, forest edge, open woodlands, grassy areas, etc.Glycine max, Medicago, etc. Has also been found feeding on apple, clover, sugar beets, legumes, cotton, wheat, rose, and cherry trees (Hamilton 1975). For a list of more plants this species has been collected from, see: DL.
Erythroneura nudataA yellowish-white species with a thin reddish-orange color pattern. The vertex has divergent orange parallel submedial lines, often with lateral branch; the vertex midline is pale. The face and thoracic venter are entirely pale. The pronotum has thin Y- or V-shaped medial vitta with an orange straight line on each lateral margin. The mesonotum is pale with dark lateral triangles; the apex is dark, contrasting with adjacent pale areas. The thin orange markings on the wings are broken, and there is a dark spot on the costal margin. Adults are 2.8-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

See 3I for images of pinned specimens.

Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.WoodlandsVitis sp., Cercis canadensis, Aesculus sp., Cornus sp., Lonicera sp., Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Acer sp., Ulmus alata, among others. (3I)
Erythroneura corniA yellowish to white species with a bold, vibrant orange or red color pattern. The vertex has parallel submedial lines, often with lateral branches, and a dark red midline. The face is brown or black, and the thoracic venter is entirely dark. The pronotum is largely dark with pale lateral margins or pale with two longitudinal stripes. The scutellum is largely reddish-orange. The wings have broken orange-red oblique vittae, and there is a dark spot along the costal margin of each wing. Adults are 2.6-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

See 3I for images of pinned specimens.

Recorded from a single county in the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Primarily dogwood (Cornus sp.); also Quercus pagoda, Cercis canadensis, among others (3I)
Erythroneura without Interconnected Orange LinesHas a yellow or white dorsum and an orange (sometimes yellow) overlaying color pattern. The wing markings [which can be moderately thick] are all disconnected, with the pattern not extending uninterrupted from one wing to the other [when the wings are closed]. There is a dark line on the costal margins of the wing, and four black spots near the rear of the wing (if the wing is closed, only "3" spots may be visible; 2 of the spots are on the wing tip). The top of the head has parallel orange lines, which extend onto the pronotum, forming a Y-shaped mark; the sides of the pronotum have a bold orange bar. The scutellum has three orange triangles- two large ones in the upper corners, and one in the bottom. Adults are probably between 2.8 and 3.2 mm long.Recorded from the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Mixed hardwood forests, open forests, etc.See respective species pages, but usually Vitis sp. (grape).
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythroneura fraxaThis species has a bold, broad reddish-orange color pattern on its wings and body, forming somewhat of a zigzag shape. When viewed from above, the reddish zigzags surround two prominent white spots down the middle of the wings. The white patch closest to the head is circular, almost oval-shaped, whereas the white patch near the tip of the wings is diamond-shaped; in some individuals, there is a small orange spot in the middle of this diamond. The shape of these two white patches can vary among individuals. There is a noticeable diagonal black mark on the costal margin of each wing, and four black spots near the rear of the wing (forming an upside down V when viewed from above). The scutellum has bold orange lateral triangles, with a paler apex; the rest of the scutellum is white. The pronotum has three prominent vertical bars, with the center one forming a skinny "Y" and extending onto the top of the head. These head lines are parallel and run very close to one another; there is either a small white midline between the orange lines or no midline at all, resulting in a central thick bold line. The face is pale, and the thoracic venter is pale outside of the dark mesosternum. Adults are 2.9-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from several counties in the upper Piedmont where it is rather uncommon. Possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Redbud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)