Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Empoa venustaA yellowish species with a bold, prominent wing pattern that can strongly vary among forms. In the dark form, much of the basal half of the wings are dark brown, followed by a non-banded yellow section that is as wide as the dark band; this pattern gives this form a saddled look. In the paler form, much of the basal half of the wings are yellow, with a dark median transverse brown band that extends straight to the costal margins; this band can vary in width among individuals. The wing tips are dark brown, with boldly infuscated apical crossveins and brownish apical cells; the fourth, upper apical cell can be a little pale, appearing grayish-brown and smudgy. The head and pronotum are yellowish-white to bright yellow, the scutellum ranges from yellowish-orange (paler forms above pics) to dark brown (dark forms, some paler forms). The abdomen is yellow with the dorsum of the basal three segments brown; sometimes the basal half of the segments are brown. Adults are 3.25-3.75 mm long. (Christian, 1953)

For more images of this species showing variation, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains, probably more abundant in at least this region.Has been found near montane mixed hardwood forest.Tilia americana (basswood), Tilia sp., Ulmus sp. (elm) (3I)
Empoa rubricolaA pale, yellowish species with a single broad, dark brown transverse band across the middle of the wings; this band noticeably tapers near the costal margin, and the center of the band is narrower than the the sides. The apical cells of the wing are brownish, with a band of brown spots along the apical crossveins. The The head, pronotum, and scutellum are yellowish, with the latter sometimes having orange lateral triangles. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded recently from Rockingham county in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat, but not a common species.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Red oak, pin oak, Quercus sp. (Christian, 1953)
Empoa gilletteiA yellowish species with a bold, prominent wing pattern that can strongly vary among individuals. There is a dark median transverse brown band that extends straight to the costal margins; this band can vary in width among individuals. The wing tips are bicolored: the apical crossveins are strongly infuscated but the wing tips themselves are lightly infuscated and typically appear pale, providing a noticeable contrast with the crossveins. As a result of the pale tips, dark crossveins, and median transverse band, the wings appear double-banded. Note that the extent to which the crossveins and surrounding cells are infuscated can strongly vary among individuals; sometimes the margin of the tips can be infuscated, kind of 'cupping' the rest of the pale area. The head and pronotum are yellowish-white to bright yellow, the scutellum ranges from yellowish-orange to dark brown. The abdomen is yellow with basal half of the dorsum of three basal segments black; the underside is yellowish-white. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Christian, 1953), (Hamilton, 1983)

For more pics of this species showing the range of variation in color and pattern, see: BG.

Scattered records across the Piedmont and mountains where it can be locally common; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and higher elevation forest.Recorded hosts include at least 6 families of deciduous trees, including birches (Betula sp.), alders (Alnus sp.), maple (Acer sp.), hickory (Carya sp.), cherry (Prunus sp.), oak (Quercus sp.), and willow (Salix sp.) (3I)
Empoa castaA pale yellowish species, with a yellowish-white to light yellow head, pronotum, and scutellum; sometimes the scutellum is a deep yellow to yellowish-brown. The wings are yellowish-white to whitish with a dark brown transverse band across the middle of the wings. This band is oblique on the corium (outer part of the wing), curving downwards to the costal margins (instead of transversing straight across the wings); this band is narrow and sometimes consists of only several spots or slight traces of of brown near the costal margin. The transverse band is as bold as, but not bolder than the dark brown infuscations around the apical crossveins: the spots around the apical crossveins form a band of their own, typically consisting of four spots in the inner three basal and first apical cells to eight or nine spots in these cells. Individuals that only have four spots making up the apical band usually lack a median transverse band. The abdomen has the dorsum of each segment black on the basal half; the underside of these segments is black in males, yellow or white in females. Adults are 3.25-3.75 mm long. (Christian, 1954)

For images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a few counties in the mountains and Piedmont; likely under colelcted and tehrefore more abundant in the right habitat.Quercus alba, Q. macrocarpa, Quercus sp. (Christian, 1954)
Agallia quadripunctata
Four-spotted Clover Leafhopper
This species is stout and robust in appearance and has short wings that are wider than those in the very common A. constricta: short and wide vs. long and slender. Adults range in color from light brown to fuscous to dark brown (but not necessarily black) with pale wing venation; males are much darker than females. There are four spots on the front of the body: two on the head and two dark ones on the pronotum (BG). Individuals have variable body color, ranging from light to dark brown. Adults are 3 to 4 mm long and 1.5 mm wide. The female pregenital sternite is truncate without any emarginations. The male plates are small and acutely angled, with convex lateral margins. Nymphs are dark, a combination of black and white, and they have small 'ear-tufts' above the eyes characteristic of Agallia nymphs. (DeLong 1948), (Oman 1933)Primarily recorded from the mountains, plus several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Likely more abundant, at least in the mountains, in the right habitat. Grassy, brushy field-type habitat, including weedy areas and agricultural fields (BG).Usually on legumes, like clover, and has been found on Liliaceae. Also recorded from Asclepias and Rubus (DL).
Cyrtolobus vauA small robust species with a noticeable crest on the pronotum (lower on males) and prominent markings. This species varies greatly in color and size, with females larger and lighter than males. The transverse pronotal band is prominent, pale bordered with a deep brown in females, whereas the lateral stripe is lacking. Females have a distinct light brown coloration, with the pronotum elevated slightly behind the head. The female's forewings are hyaline with brownish wing tips. The head is small, pale yellow punctured with brown. The eyes are large and grayish-brown, ranging to red in males; the oceeli are small and hairy. The legs and undersurface of the body are a uniform yellowish color. Males are similar to females but are blackish overall, with prominent white transverse bands. In both sexes the mid-dorsal spot is large and prominent. Adults are between 5.5 and 6.5 mm long. (Kopp)Seasonal distribution: late March-5 September (CTNC)Found in a wide variety of habitats where oak is present, including mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. stellata (CTNC)
Paraphlepsius bifidus
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Paraphlepsius turpiculus
Erasmoneura vulnerataA dark leafhopper with a reddish-brown color pattern, sometimes with a brighter red or green hue. The extensive brown patches on the wings and head are characteristic of this species; the brown color sort of resembles the color of dried-blood (hence 'vulnerata') (BG). Some individuals however have very vibrant red wings and sometimes a red head and thorax. There are small pale spots on the side of an otherwise dark head with a pale midline; these pale spots resemble white stripes next to the eyes. The pronotum and mesonotum are also mostly dark, and the anteclypeus is brown or black. There is a white patch on the costal margin of the wings, and the wing tips are a dark brown. The underside of the thorax (the mesosternum to be exact) is dark, the rest is pale. Adults are 2.7-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species showing the array of variation, see: BG.

Recorded across the state, with a majority of records from the Piedmont where it is common; likely abundant across the state in the right habitat.Recorded from mixed hardwood forest, forest edge, and grassy areas.Vitis riparia, Vitis sp., Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Ilex decidua, Cercis canadensis, Aesculus sp., Ulmus alata, among others (3I); has also been found on Black Gum
Graphocephala teliformisA large member of this genus, with males 7.2- 8.5 mm long and females 8.0- 9.1 mm long (though longer individuals can occur). There are two color forms. Typical individuals resemble G. fennahi and have contrasting bold red stripes of subequal (almost equal) width on green wings; there are only 2 stripes. Individuals of the other color form look like G. coccinea, with contrasting red stripes (3 possible stripes) on blue wings. Wing stripes can be blue-green but are seldom bright blue (BG). The crown is yellow and the scutellum is yellowish to orange, while the underside of the body is yellow. There is a bold black line going around the side of the face between the eyes. (Hamilton 1985)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains, but probably more abundant in the right habitats; uncommon. Likely not to be found in much of the Coastal Plain.A common understory species found around the edge of forests; has also been found in the state within mixed hardwood forest. Adults are polyphagous, found on choke cherry and other woody plants (BG)
Xerophloea majorThis species [usually] has a broadly rounded anterior margin to he head, strongly produced anteriorly (i.e. the head is large). The head is noticeably declivous, sloping downwards rather than being held straight out. The pronotum is slightly longer than the head, but both lengths are quite similar. The wings and pronotum are corasely punctuate, more so than on the head. Males are an almost uniform light fuscous color with a dark fuscous, longitudinal median line on the head; there is a dark transverse band on the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum. The wing veins are sometimes dark. Females are uniformly green. The female pregenital sternite has a small median indentation on the posterior margin, in between two rounded lateral lobes; the sternite itself is noticeably long. Adult males are 7.1-7.6 mm long, females are 7.7-8.9 mm. (Nielson, 1961)Recorded from several counties in the mountains and Piedmont, though Nielson (1961) depicts the species ranging throughout most of the state. Likely an uncommon to rare species in North Carolina. Grassy areasGrasses
Xerophloea viridisA distinctive, greenish species with heavy pits all over the body and a flattened head. This is the smallest member of this genus with a shorter head than most other Xerophloea. The pronotum is about twice as long as the length of the head. Males have black and gray on much of the pronotum, a black longitudinal line on the head, and some black marks down the center of the back. Females are entirely green. The head profile is horizontal, with the head held straight out rather than slowing downwards. Adult males are 5.1-5.9 mm long,
females are 5.7-6.3 mm. (Nielson, 1961)

Scattered records across the state, primiarly in the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it is uncommon; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, field-type areas near forest.Recorded from Gossypium sp. (DL)
Xerophloea majestaThis species has a strongly produced, distinctly angulate anterior margin to he head; the head is large and long and distinctly pointed. The head is also noticeably declivous, sloping downwards rather than being held straight out. The length of the pronotum is about equal to the length of the head. The wings and pronotum are corasely punctuate. Males are an almost uniform green color except for a fuscous longitudinal median band on the crown and pronotum. Females are uniformly green. Adult males are 6.6-7.4 mm long, females are 7.5-8.3 mm. (Nielson, 1961)A single record from the Coastal Plain; rare in the state. This species has been collected across its range from January to October. (Nielson, 1961)Grassy, open areasGrasses
Pissonotus marginatusA dark brown to black shiny species which is sexually dimorphic. The frons is a light brown color, with a darker brown, contrasting clypeus. The antennal segments are a light brown. In brachypterous males, the wings are a dark brown with a thin white apical margin. In females, the wings lack the white apical margin. Macropterous individuals are similar in color to brachypters but have clear wings. This species is most similar to P. concolor but tends to have a much darker frons (C. Bartlett pers. comment). Adult brachypterous males are around 2.65 mm long, while females are around 3.12 mm; macropterous females are around 3.85 mm. (Bartlett, 2000)Recorded from the mountains, probably more abundant across this region; also a record from the Coastal Plain.Montane grassy areasCarex sp. (Cyperaceae), Solidago sp. (goldenrod; Asteraceae) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Penestragania robustaA green species (fading to yellow with age and/or in collected specimens), with many short black hairs (setae) scattered across the surface of the wings; sometimes these hairs can be pale, and there may be dark rings at the base of them. The vertex is short and broadly rounded, less wide than the pronotum. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is barely excavated and is slightly bisinuate, with a small median projection. Adult males are 3.2-4.3 mm long, females are 3.6-4.7 mm. (Beamer & Lawson, 1945), (Blocker, 1970)

See here for more images of this species: BG.

Rare in the state (but possibly overlooked or undercollected), with records from only a single county in the Piedmont (though Blocker 1970 indicates there are other records for the state).Blocker (1970) notes multiple host plants for this species; those reported from the southeastern United States are: Axonopus compressus, Cynodon dactylon, Iva sp., Larrea tridentata glutinosa, Medicago sativa, Paspalum notatum, & Prunus augustifolia
Stragania alabamensisA greenish to tan species, with many short whitish hairs (setae) scattered across the surface of the wings; sometimes there is a fuscous spot at the apex of the clavi (inner part of the wings) and the outer ends of the apical cells. The vertex is rounded and distinctly narrower than the pronotum. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is produced on the median two thirds, sometimes with a small median notch. Fuscous spots are common in the posterior third of the anteapical cells. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is produced on the median, occasionally with a small notch. Adults males are 4.0-4.7 mm long, females are 4.5-4.8 mm. (Beamer & Lawson, 1945), (Blocker, 1970)

See here for more images of this species: BG.

A single record from the mountains, likely overlooked and undercollected and could turn up anywhere in the state.Honey locust (Gleditsia triancanthos) (Blocker, 1970)
Paraphlepsius humidusA dark brown, densely reticulated species with a produced, pointed crown that is sharply angled towards the face; this is a large and robust species. The anterior third of the wings are paler than the rest. The female pregenital sternite has median lobes that project slightly outwards, with a brown margin; there is a slight median notch. The male subgenital plates are triangular with bulbous lateral margins. Adult males are 6.9-7.4 mm long, females are 7.0-7.7 mm. (Hamilton 1975)

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev. For an image of a specimen of this species, see: BOLD.

Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains; likely more abundant in this region.
Chlorotettix melanotusA somewhat dark species, described as appearing black but in reality being dark green. The eyes are blackish, and the pronotum has a large black spot behind each eye. The wings have smokey costal margins and apexes. Adults are around 7.5 mm in length. This species is described as "resembling tergatus so closely in coloration and structural characters that the two can scarcely be distinguished by external characters. Usually melanotus is darker in color" (DeLong 1948). However, the male plates of melanotus are a little broader at the tip and more strongly rounded. (DeLong 1918)

The photographic records here are tentative and are placed here because of how dark the individuals are. These individuals are bluish-black with black eyes, concolorous wings and body, and yellow legs and face. The costal margin of the wings is also yellowish.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont, uncommon to rare; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Wet meadows and grassy areas; sometimes a hillside species
Empoasca coccineaA green to reddish species, with the body varying from dull green to bright red; when green, there is typically a reddish tint. The crown lacks any pale spots. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The pronotum lacks any dark markings. The head is roundedly produced and bulbous, without any noticeable projection. The wings lack any dark markings and were greenish or smoky sybhyaline. The legs are green. The male subgenital plates are broad at the base but taper to pointed acute apices; they are slender. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly and roundedly produced; it is more than twice as long as the previous segment. Adults are around 3.0-3.2 mm long. (DeLong, 1931)

For more images of this species, see: BG, BOLD.

Recorded from a single county in the upper Piedmont though likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mid elevation, pine to mixed hardwood forest.Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), Pinus sp. (3I)
Empoasca unidentified speciesGreenish to yellowish-green overall. Sometimes with pale spots on the head on either side of a pale midline, which is not always present. The pronotum sometimes has three pale spots along the anterior margin. The scutellum may have a broad white band in the middle. The wings are typically clear, sometimes greenish; there are no dark spots. Adults are around 3 mm long. Found throughout the state, typically common where found.Grassy, field-type habitat; open and mixed hardwood forest; etc. See respective species links below.
Empoasca fabae
Potato Leafhopper
A pale green species, sometimes yellowish that can be highly variable. It typically has a row of six white spots along the anterior margin of the pronotum. These spots are evenly spaced from one another and are characteristic of this species, though sometimes these spots are missing or are indistinct. The vertex often has pale or dark green spots: the midline is pale and there are pale dashes on either side. The scutellum has the lateral triangles typically outlined with white, with multiple pale lines instead of a single central pale band. The head is broadly angled; it is not prominently pointed. The wings are greenish subhyaline. The male subgenital plates are long and slender, curving outwards near the tips and tapering to acute apices; they are divergent from one another. The female pregenital sternite is moderately produced and roundedly truncated; it appears largely rectangular. Adults are around 3.5 mm long. (DeLong, 1931)Common and widespread across the state, found from mountains to coast.Has been found in a variety of habitats, including mixed hardwood forest, grassy areas, brush, pine forests, and high elevation forests.A generalist, feeding on more than 200 plant species, both wild and domesticated, especially legumes. See here for a list of known host plants: 3I.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Forcipata nr. locaYellowish overall, with a yellow to yellow-orange head, thorax, and the basal two thirds of the wings; the tips are hyaline. Wing venation is yellow. The head noticeably projects forward. Males has forcep-like subgenital plates that are black-tipped, sometimes visible through the semi-transparent wings. The female pregenital sternite has a central produced lobe that is narrow, with notches between the central and lateral lobes broad and U-shaped. Adults are around 4 mm long. [Description for F. loca] (DeLong & Caldwell, 1936), (BG)Scattered records across the state, from the mountains and Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely abundant throughout the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Sedges and grasses: Carex vesicaria for F. loca (per 3I), Carex leptalea for F. acclina (per 3I)
Empoasca recurvataThe dorsum is a green color; there are few symmetrical cream-colored markings on the head and thorax. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The pronotum lacks any dark markings and has three white spots, which may sometimes be fused, along the anterior margin. The vertex is strongly rounded and bulbous; it has a pair of pale green spots near the margin. The wings lack any spots and are yellowish-green. The male subgenital plates are long and slender with acute, upturned apices. Adults are around 2.75 mm long. (DeLong, 1931)Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and coastal plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Agricultural fields, field-type habitatHas been recorded in the state from sweet potata (Ipomoea batatas); also known from Lonicera japonica, Toxicodendron radicans, Aesculus sp., and Pilea pumila, among others (3I)
Empoasca erigeronThe dorsum is a pale green or yellow color with few symmetrical cream-colored markings on the head and thorax. The vertex usually has a pale median stripe and pale, curved parenthesis mark on either side. The pronotum has three large white spots on the anterior margin, one in the middle and one behind each eye; otherwise the pronotum is yellowish-green. The scutellum has a pale midline. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The pronotum lacks and dark markings. The wings lack any spots. The male subgenital plates are long, slender and pointed, diverging outwards from one another. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin roundedly produced. Adults are around 3.0 mm long. (DeLong, 1931), (3I)

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found in field type habitat.Recorded in the state from Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) and Spartina cynosuroides (big cordgrass); also reported from Solidago sp., Vicia sp., Chamaemelum sp., Medicago polymorpha, Ambrosia sp., Medicago sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Ambrosia artemisifolia, and Salix sp., among others (3I)
Empoasca bifurcataA bright green species with a golden-yellow head that is mottled with paler yellow around the ocelli. The pronotum is greenish with golden-yellow coloration; there are three large white spots on the anterior margin, one in the middle and one behind each eye. The scutellum has a broad central white longitudinal band. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The wings lack any spots and are a bright green color; the apices are not colored and the venation is green. The male subgenital plates are long, slender and pointed; they are slightly divergent from one another and curve backwards near the apices, unique for and characteristic of this species. The female pregenital sternite is rectangular, being wider than it is long; there is a very slight median projection. Adults are 3.2-3.5 mm long. (DeLong, 1931), (3I)

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Agricultural fields, field-type habitatsHas been recorded in the state from Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Symphyotrichum subulatum (eastern annual saltmarsh aster), Vicia sp, Melilotus sp. (vetch, sweetclover), and Dahlia sp.; also known from Medicago polymorpha, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens, Aster sp., and others (3I)
Empoasca fabalisThe dorsum is a pale green or yellow color; there are few symmetrical cream-colored markings on the head and thorax. The crown lacks round spots. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The pronotum lacks and dark markings. The wings lack any spots. The male subgenital plates have a wide base before narrowing about halfway and tapering; they are divergent from one another. The male subgenital plates are long, slender and narrow, strongly diverging from one another. The female pregenital sternite is rectangular, with a largely straight posterior margin. (3I)Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Agricultural fieldsRecorded in the state from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas); also recorded from Gossypium sp. (cotton), Lonicera japonica, Zea mays, Ipomoea acuminata, Ipomoea crassicaulis, Ipomoea rubra, Ipomoea tiliacea, Solanum tuberosum (potato), among others (3I)
Cyrtolobus griseusThe female is a grayish color with some yellow. Black markings cross the pronotum, which can be described as mostly bicolored- half of the pronotum is a light brown while the other half is considerably darker. A white transverse band can be found at the rear of the pronotum, and there is a pale, transverse mid-dorsal spot. Males have a brownish pronotum with a whitish margin. The mid-dorsal spot is a distinctive white, and there is a prominent dark brown "V" formed on the pronotum, near the middle; the tip of the pronotum is a dark brown. The male's face is white with some dark brown below the eyes; ocelli are red. The underside of the thorax is black while the abdomen is pale with some blackening at the edges and in the center of abdominal segments. The legs are pale medially, black laterally, with some yellowish color. Adults are generally between 5.9 and 6.3 mm long. (Kopp)Several records from across the state. Seasonal distribution: 29 April-6 July (CTNC)Where oaks are present.Quercus alba, Q. stellata (CTNC)
Empoasca delongiThe dorsum is a pale green or yellow color with few symmetrical cream-colored markings on the head and thorax. The crown lacks any pale spots. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The pronotum lacks and dark markings. The wings lack any spots. The male subgenital plates are pointed and divergent from one another. (3I)Recorded from a single county in the coastal plain; likely under collected and more abundant in the right habitat.Dogfennel (Eupatorium capillifolium), Eastern annual saltmarsh aster (Symphyotrichum subulatum), Lonicera japonica, Aesculus sp., Urtica sp. (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Rhynchomitra lingulaA greenish species with a fairly short, rounded head (compared to other members of this genus). The wing venation is greenish, otherwise the wings are clear. The legs are brownish-orange. See here for an image of a live adult, and here for images of a pinned specimen: (1) and (2).Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant in the state, especially near the coast.Serenoa repens (saw palmetto; Araceae) (UDEL)
Calyptoproctus marmoratusThis species is variable in color, with the body and anterior portions of the wings usually mottled with lichen-green, brown, and black coloration. The wings are reticulated with darker veins surrounding translucent wing cells; the base of the wings can show the lichen green and black color pattern found on the thorax. The head is not strongly produced, being rather flat with eyes narrower than the pronotum. The sides of the face are parallel, and the legs are relatively long, especially the hind legs. Adults are about one inch in length and resemble small flattened cicadas. (BG)Uncommon, recorded from a handful of counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, but not encountered frequently.Found in deciduous forests.Unknown, but likely deciduous trees, possibly oaks such as Quercus nigra. (BG)
Poblicia fuliginosaA dark species, almost black in color, with small white speckling on the wings. The head is short but broad and has a yellow margin to the flat edge; the eyes are equal in separation or broader than the pronotum, but not exceeding the width of the closed forewings (UDEL). The thorax and anterior abominal segments are black, while the posterior abdominal segments (most of the abdomen) are a bright red: see here. See here for other images and angles of a pinned adult. Nymphs have a vertex (top of the head) that, in the 5th instar stage, is at least 8 times wider than long. Nymphs have blackish legs, a dark brownish thorax, and a whitish abdomen and head.Uncommon to rare, not encountered frequently; recorded from a handful of counties in the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Rhus spp., esp. Rhus copallinum L. (winged sumac, Anacardiaceae) in the East (UDEL)
Empoasca alboneuraA robust, yellowish-green (tinged with orange) to dull-green (tinged with brown) species that has pale wing venation; this gives the species a striped appearance. The crown is relatively broad and bluntly rounded, with a median stripe that has an oblique pale dash on either side, near the eye. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is produced and rounded medially, with a shallow but broad lateral emargination. Adults are 2.5-3.5 mm long. (Wheeler, 1940)Recorded from the state, but unclear from whereAlfalfa (Medicago sativa), Erigeron sp., Trifolium repens, Anthemis cotula, Artemisia sp., Chrysothamnus sp., Vicia sp. (3I)
Ossiannilssonola australisA pale species with a head, pronotum, and scutellum that range from light yellow to yellow. The wings are also largely some form of yellow, but there is a characteristic yellowish-orange to deep orange to reddish stripe/band along the commissural margin of the wings, extending from the sides of the scutellum towards the apical crossveins. There is a transverse band of three defined black spots in a row along the apices of the inner three basal cells, anterior to the apical crossveins. The abdomen is black dorsally, with the outer margin of each segment yellow. Male subgenital plates are yellow. Adults are around 3.5 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it can be locally common; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood and open forest habitat.Quercus alba, Q. macrocarpa, Quercus sp. (Christian, 1953)
Edwardsiana rosae
Rose Leafhopper
Pale yellow to white overall without and dark markings. The posterior margin of the female subgenital plate has a triangular projection extending outwards. Adults are 3.5-3.75 mm long. (Christian, 1953), (3I)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

A single record from the mountains, likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat. Many host plants, including: alder (Alnus sp.), hazelnut (Corylus sp.), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), apple (Malus sp.), cherry (Prunus sp.), pear (Pyrus sp.), oak (Quercus sp.), rose (Rosa sp.), bramble (Rubus sp.), willow (Salix sp.), and mountain-ash (Sorbus sp.) (3I)
Ribautiana unidentified speciesYellowish overall, with a pale yellowish-white head, pronotum, and scutellum (which might have darker lateral triangles). The wings are largely yellow from the base to the apical crossveins. There is a row of dark brown to black smudgy marks in the apices of the inner basal cells, anterior to the crossveins; these marks form a dotted crossband that obliquely angles towards the costal margin (following the apices of the cells). There are a couple spots midway along the inner margin of the third apical cell (the uppermost one). There is also a spot along the costal margin, at the base of the crossvein between the bottom two apical cells; this extra dot along the costal margin is characteristic of Ribautiana and helps separate this species from similar species in Ossiannilssonola. The abdomen is yellow ventrally. Adults are around 3.25 mm long. (Christian, 1953)A single record from the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.See respective species links below.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Ossiannilssonola tunicarubraAn unmistakable species with the basal 2/3 of the wings bright red, contrasting with a yellowish thorax, head, and legs; the wing tips are pale with a yellowish tint. The dorsum of the abdomen is black with the outer margin of the segments yellow; the underside of the body is yellow. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded recently from Durham county in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat but likely uncommon to rare in the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.White Oak (Quercus alba) (Christian, 1953)
Ossiannilssonola hineiA very distinctive species. Chalky white overall, with two transverse dark brown bands across the wings: one across the base of the wings and the other before the apical crossveins. The wing venation is white; the abdomen is yellow. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1953)

For another image of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from two counties in the mountains, rare; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near montane mixed hardwood forest.White Oak (Quercus alba) (Christian, 1953)
Ossiannilssonola flavomarginataThis is a HIGHLY variable species with at least five recognized color forms. See below:

Form I: Head is light yellow; pronotum is yellow with a red triangle towards the posterior margin. The scutellum has the outer angles red, forming an inverted V. The wings wings have a red band extending from the base to the apical crossveins, along the commissural margin; there is a dark spot in each of the three apical basal cells, forming a band that is obliquely slanted towards the costal margin. The rest of the wing is yellowish, with darker tips. The abdomen has a dark brown median band dorsally, yellow ventrally; male subgenital plates are also yellow.

Form II: The head is yellowish-white; the pronotum is yellow, light brown posteriorly. The scutellum is light brown. The wings are light to dark brown without any apical spots. The abdomen has a median dark brown band dorsally, yellow ventrally; male subgenital plates are also yellow.

Form III: The head, pronotum, and scutellum are bright yellow. The wings are pale red throughout, with hyaline tips; there can be a dark brown band around the apical crossveins. The abdomen and male plates are yellow.

Form IV: The head, pronotum, and scutellum are yellow-orange. The wings are a deep orange color throughout with hyaline tips; there can be a dark band around the apical crossveins. The abdomen and male plates are yellow.

Form V: The head, pronotum, scutellum, and wings are white without any dark markings.

On top of the different forms, there is color intergradation between forms 1 and II, I and V, II and V, and sometimes III and IV. Adults are 3.25-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1953)

Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains where it can be locally common; probably more abundant in that region.Has been found near montane mixed hardwood forest.Quercus undulosa, Quercus sp. (BG)
Ossiannilssonola bereniceA mostly yellow species, with the head, pronotum, and scutellum a yellow to yellowish-orange color and the wings largely a light yellow to deep orange-yellow anterior to the apical crossveins. There is a transverse band of three black spots in a row in the apices of the inner three basal cells anterior to the crossveins of each wing. The apical cells are a smoky light brown color, sometimes with indistinct spots in the uppermost apical cells (cells three and four). Sometimes the black spots are reduced or missing. The abdomen has dorsal segments black medially, yellow to yellow-orange laterally and ventrally. Male subgenital plates are yellow. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba, Quercus sp. (Christian, 1953)
Typhlocyba modestaAdults are yellowish-white, with wings that are subhyaline to the apical cross veins. The apical cells are hyaline and brownish. The abdomen is ivory white. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite has a median notch, between two rounded lobes. (Christian, 1953), (3I)A single record from the mountains, likely under collected and more abundant in the right habitat.Acer saccharum (Christian, 1953)
Eupteryx decemnotata
Ligurian Leafhopper
A fairly distinctively marked species. Wings are yellowish green with characteristic darker polygon-shaped marks scaattered; the apical wing veins are yellow, bordered with dark brown. The scutellum is yellowish, sometimes with two black spots in the middle. The head has a characteristic even number of bold black spots. Usually there are 5 pairs of dots, with four dots along the midline of the vertex, two black marks along the margin of the vertex, and 4 dots in a row across the face; however, spots are sometimes fused together. Adults are between 2 and 3 mm long. (Rung, 2009)

For more images of this species, see: 1, 2, 3.

A single record from the Piedmont; unclear what the status of this species in the state is and whether there are any established populations. Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, but likely found anywhere herbs and ornamentals occur in high number. A variety of herbs and ornamentals in the Lamiaceae family: rosemary, sage, majoram, catnip, oregano, lemon balm, peppermint, basil, thyme, etc. (Rung, 2009)
Eupteryx omaniA dark, mostly blackish species. The vertex is a dirty yellow color, the face is yellow to white. The pronotum and scutellum are entirely blackish brown. The wings are almost entirely blackish brown, concolorous with the thorax, except for along the costal margin. The outer basal cell along the costal margin is yellow to white, with this pale coloration extending to the apical cross veins; therefore, the pale coloration widens posteriorly since the cell widens. The costal margin itself is a bold yellow. The underside of the thorax and abdomen are yellow; the abdomen is brown above. Adults are 3.0- 3.25 mm long. (Christian, 1956)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood and open forest habitat. Ferns (Polypodiaceae); collected from southern woodfern (Dryopteris ludoviciana) (Christian, 1956)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Eupteryx nigraA dark, mostly blackish species. The vertex is a dirty yellow color, the face is yellow to white. The pronotum and scutellum are entirely blackish brown. The wings are almost entirely blackish brown, concolorous with the thorax, except for along the costal margin. There is a yellow stripe along almost the entire length of the costal margin, extending almost to the apical cross veins; the costal margin itself is a bold, contrasting yellow. The width of this yellow stripe varies among individuals, with some largely lacking the stripe; note that in individuals with thicker stripes, the yellow does not take up the entirety of the outer basal cell and remains more or less straight. The underside of the thorax and abdomen are yellow, except for the pregenital sternite of males which is a solid brown; the abdomen is dark brown above with yellow segments. The subgenital plates are somewhat triangular in shape, with broad bases that strongly taper. Teneral individuals have two red longitudinal lines on the sides of the midline on the head, and the pronotum has a median red transverse line; there are red markings on the pronotum behind each eye. Adults are 3.7- 4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1956)Recorded recently from the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat, especially in that region.Has been found near montane mixed forest; a woodland species.Ferns (Polypodiaceae) (3I)
Eupteryx flavoscutaA dark species with a variable color pattern. The scutellum is a characteristic yellow with dark brown lateral angles; the pronotum is either a uniform dark brown to blackish color or dark with a yellowish-brown disc. The vertex is a dirty yellow to brownish color; the face and underside of the body are a bright yellow. The wings tend to be dark brown to blackish with a greenish-yellow middorsal spot (larger in some individuals) and a broad yellow stripe along the costal margin of the wings, from the base to the apical crossveins. Some individuals however are quite dark and largely lack the yellow middorsal spot. One of the apical cells is also largely white. The abdomen is dark brown dorsally, with yellow dividing segments. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1956)

Nymphs are mostly yellow with a reddish thorax and wing stubs and a white edge to the head.

Scattered records across the state, more common in the mountains; likely more abundant across the state, especially where ferns are present.Has been found near mixed hardwood and higher elevation forest- where ferns are present.Common on ferns (Polypodiaceae), Pteris aquilina (3I)
Kyboasca splendidaA stunning species with a distinct, unique pattern. Greenish overall with two bold blue stripes on the wings along the claval suture that are connected with a lateral blue band across the pronotum; when viewed from above, these blue lines form an elongated triangle. Some boldly marked individuals have orange bands bordering either side of the blue stripes on the wings. There is an orange mark on the anterior border of the blue pronotal stripe. There is a blue mark across much of the vertex. The wing tips have a dusky tint. The underside of the body and legs are green. Males are more brightly colored than females.Recorded from Rockingham county in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Alders (Alnus sp.), Alnus incana, Alnus rugosa (3I)
Dikraneura angustataA yellowish to yellowish-green species with a pointed, acute head and long, slender body. The vertex, pronotum, and scutellum are yellowish, with two prominent reddish-orange stripes across the vertex and pronotum; in some individuals, these stripes are yellowish. The wings are bluish-green, a result of the dark color of the abdomen. The face and underside of the body are a dull yellow color. The male subgenital plates are broad at the base, somewhat triangular in shape and tapering into thin, upturned divergent apices. The female pregenital sternite is slightly shorter than it is wide, being rectangular in shape with the central posterior margin embrowned; the posterior margin is also slightly concavely rounded on the sides. Adults are 3.0-3.25 mm long. (Ball & DeLong, 1925)

See here for more images of this species: BG.

Recorded from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it can be locally common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, brushy, field-type habitats; lawns includedGrasses?
Eutettix n. sp.
Undescribed Eutettix Species
A dark species, sort of a dark rufous color overall. The base of the wings is a grayish color that contrasts with the rest of the body. The legs are pale.This species has only been found in two counties in the Piedmont where it is rare; potentially more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.
Alconeura macraA pale, creamy-white species with an orange-yellow color pattern. The vertex has an orange-yellow V-mark that is inverted from the margin; this mark touches the eyes and largely does not widen much as it extends towards the pronotum. The pronotum has four orange-yellow lines (two pairs), parallel to one another and extending across the pronotum towards the scutellum; the lateral pairs of lines are slightly connected at the anterior end and sometimes connected posteriorly. The scutellum is orange-yellow except for a small but bold anteromedian white square. There are two orange-yellow oval-shaped claval spots on each wing, one elongated mark on the side of the scutellum and the other in the middle along the commissure; when the wings are closed, the middle spots on each wing form an oval dorsal spot. There is an orange-yellow stripe that curves inward from each costal margin along the claval suture to the apical crossveins, meeting a smoky brown mark that extends from a yellowish-orange spot on the midcostal margin. The apical crossveins are yellow, bordered with dark brown; there is a bold black apical dot on the third crossvein. The wing tips are yellowish with some smoky brown tints. The underside of the body is yellowish. (Griffith, 1938)

For more images of this species, see: 3I.

Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; probably found elsewhere in the right habitat, but likely uncommon to rare.Has been found in open forest habitat near a cypress swamp.Hypericum sp. (3I)
Eratoneura complex 3
'Boldly-marked' Eratoneura
Yellowish-white with a reddish-orange color pattern on the wings. The markings on the wings are somewhat thick in places, with a blocky aspect to many of the lines. The top of the head has two thick parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The reddish-orange marks can also have some yellow coloration, as can the M-shaped mark on the pronotum. The scutellum has orange lateral triangles with a contrasting red border, and the tip of the scutellum is a bold reddish-orange spot. Adults are around 3.0 mm long.Recorded recently from a couple counties in the Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.See respective species links below for a list of known host plants.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Eratoneura complex 2
'Broken-lined' Eratoneura
A mostly yellowish-white to white hopper with a dark orange to reddish-orange color pattern on the wings and body. Markings on the wings are thin, oblique, and disconnected from one another. The scutellum has a noticeable red dot at the tip, and the outer edge of the yellow lateral triangles has a red line/mark. The M-shaped mark on the pronotum is yellow-red. Adults are around 3.0 mm long. Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont; perhaps more abundant in the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.See links below for a list of known host plants for each species.