Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Eratoneura paraesculiA boldly marked leafhopper with a yellowish body and [typically] a red or orange color pattern on the wings. There are two red crossbands on the wings that do not reach the lateral margin: the crossband at the base of the wings looks like two triangles radiating outwards towards the margin of the wings (almost like a red bowtie), while the lower crossband resembles a wide "U". However, in some individuals these crossbands may be very faint or not present at all. There is a small black dot on the lateral margin of each wing, and two black dots near the wing tip in the middle (when the wings are close, these two dots become one). The thorax and head are both pale, concolorous with much of the wing color. Adults are 3.5-3.7 mm long. (3I)Recorded recently from Avery county in the mountains; specimens have been collected just across the border in Tennessee, so probably more abundant in the mountains in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, open areas near forest edge.Collected on Aesculus sp. and Carya carolinae-septentrionalis (3I)
Zyginama rossiA boldly marked leafhopper with a reddish-orange and blue color pattern. The face is mostly reddish brown. The head has a pale midline with reddish brown marks on either side on a white background. The pronotum is mostly reddish orange except for a bluish white broad midline, the posterior margin, and five anterior pale spots. The scutellum is mostly an orange brown with pale markings, though this color can vary among individuals. The color pattern on the wings is unlike any other leafhoppers in the state. The wing tips are a dark brown to blackish, and there are no crossbands on the wings. Adult males are 3.1-3.3 mm long, while females are 3.2-3.3 mm. (3I)Recorded recently from several counties in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Quercus lyrata (DL)
Illinigina illinoiensis
Illinois Grape Leafhopper
A pale, yellowish to white species with bold, distinctive red to black dots on the body; this color pattern is characteristic of this species, which resembles nothing else in our area. The number of dots can vary slightly among individuals, but there are typically around 8 or so main dots on the wings. There are also three bold dots on the thorax and head, in a line: one dot at the apex or lower part of the scutellum, the second on the middle of the pronotum, and the third dot on the tip of the head. Another dot can be on the side of the thorax, behind the base of each wing. The dots range in color from yellowish-orange, dark red, and black. Adults are around 3 mm long.Scattered records across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it is uncommon; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and open, coastal habitat.Vitis spp. (BG)
Hymetta anthismaA boldly patterned species that can vary in darkness, coloration, and pattern. Adults have a pale yellowish-white body; the head and pronotum are largely a pale white color, sometimes with dull sanguineous spots present. The wings have a whitish base color, with three crossbands (see comments section below for crossband info). The first crossband is at most slightly narrowed along the costal margin. Crossband 3, the oblique dark band, is typically distinct. There is a transverse band at the apex of the wings (between crossband 3) that is at most indistinct; usually it is not present. There are two forms in this species.

- The first, nominate form is characterized by many red dots scattered across all of the wings, including on top of the brown crossband, leading up to the transverse band near the wingtip. These dots can be large and are a brighter red; there are typically numerous spots, in some individuals the speckling can be quite dense. Crossband #1 is a brilliant red and crossband #3 is more smoky than black; the second crossband is orange and quite distinct. The posterior margin of crossband 1 projects toward the wing tips, extending outwards past the dark spot near the claval suture of each wing.

- Form 'distincta' has the red dots restricted largely to the base of the wings, before and across crossband #1; the rest of the wing is mostly white with a small number of dots. Crossband #1 tends to be very broad. More importantly, the posterior margin of the crossband extends essentially straight across the wing from the costal margin to the black dot; it does not project past the black spot. Crossband #2 is obsolete; it is not present. Crossband #3 is typically absent, but if present it is indistinct. There is also a dusky transverse band between crossband 3, across the apex of the wing.

Adults are 3.3-3.6 mm long. For more pics of this species, see: BG. (Fairbairn, 1928)

Scattered records across the state, with a majority from the Piedmont where it can be common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Cercis canadensis, Vitis spp. (3I)
Hymetta balteataA boldly patterned species that can vary in darkness, coloration, and pattern. Adults have a pale yellowish-white body; the head and pronotum are largely a pale white color, sometimes with dull sanguineous spots present. The wings have a whitish base color, with three crossbands (see comments section below for crossband info). The first crossband is at most slightly narrowed along the costal margin; its posterior margin projects toward the wing tips, extending outwards past the dark spot near the claval suture of each wing. Crossband 3, the oblique dark band, is typically distinct. There is a transverse band at the apex of the wings (between crossband 3) that is at most indistinct; usually it is not present. There are three forms in this species.

- In the first, nominate form, the oblique band (crossband #3) at the tip of the wing is either not present or indistinct. The first crossband is dusky to black in color, darker near the costal margins. Crossband 2 is not present at all. There are relatively few red dots and flecks scattered across the wings.

- In form 'mediana' crossband #1 is a dark, dull red color (though in a number of individuals it appears as a faded brown). Crossband #2 is somewhat defined but not necessarily bold; it is orange to red in color. Crossband #3 is dusky to black in color. There are many dots scattered across the wings, including before crossband one and across the rest of the wing between crossband 1 and 2; there are also dots over the white costal plague.

- Form 'albata' is pale. Crossband #1 appears as a pale brown color; it is faint. There is no crossband #2, and crossband #3 ranges from smoky to a faded dusky color (but probably darker than the first band). This form was initially described as a form of H. trifasciata, which is probably the reason why this form has a strongly narrowed crossband #1 at the costal margin.

Adults are 3.1-3.4 mm long. Nymphs are a dark gray overall. For more pics of this species, see: BG. (Fairbairn, 1928)

Recorded from across the state, with most records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it can be common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Vitis spp., Toxicodendron radicans, Cercis canadensis, Hamamelis sp. (3I)
Erythroneura with Interconnected Orange LinesA bright, boldly marked leafhopper with a yellow or white dorsum and an orange (sometimes yellow) overlaying color pattern. The wing markings [which can be moderately thick] are all connected, with the pattern seeming to extend uninterrupted from one wing to the other [when the wings are closed]. There is a dark line on the costal margins of the wing, and four black spots near the rear of the wing (if the wing is closed, only "3" spots may be visible; 2 of the spots are on the wing tip). The top of the head has parallel orange lines, which extend onto the pronotum, forming a Y-shaped mark; the sides of the pronotum have a bold orange bar. The scutellum has three orange triangles- two large ones in the upper corners, and one in the bottom. Adults are probably between 2.8 and 3.2 mm long. Recorded from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Mixed hardwood forests, open forests, etc.Vitis spp. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)
Hymetta trifasciataA boldly patterned species that can vary in darkness. Adults have a pale yellowish-white body; the head and pronotum are largely a pale white color, sometimes with dull sanguineous spots present. The wings have a whitish base color, with three crossbands (see comments section below for crossband info). The first crossband is strongly narrowed along the costal margin; this band is quite dark and can have a reddish anterior border. The second crossband consists of a series of broken dark marks. The third crossband is the bold, dark diagonal lines across the apical cells of the wings. There are some scattered red dots across the wings, mostly between the first two crossbands; there are very few if any spots before the first crossband. The costal plaque is chalky white (the bright white rectangular mark between the two crossbands, on the costal margin. Adults are 3.0-3.5 mm long, with an average of 3.2 mm. (Fairbairn, 1928)

For images of this species, see: BG.

Rare but probably overlooked due to confusion with H. balteata. Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Vitis sp., Redbud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erasmoneura vulnerataA dark leafhopper with a reddish-brown color pattern, sometimes with a brighter red or green hue. The extensive brown patches on the wings and head are characteristic of this species; the brown color sort of resembles the color of dried-blood (hence 'vulnerata') (BG). Some individuals however have very vibrant red wings and sometimes a red head and thorax. There are small pale spots on the side of an otherwise dark head with a pale midline; these pale spots resemble white stripes next to the eyes. The pronotum and mesonotum are also mostly dark, and the anteclypeus is brown or black. There is a white patch on the costal margin of the wings, and the wing tips are a dark brown. The underside of the thorax (the mesosternum to be exact) is dark, the rest is pale. Adults are 2.7-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species showing the array of variation, see: BG.

Recorded across the state, with a majority of records from the Piedmont where it is common; likely abundant across the state in the right habitat.Recorded from mixed hardwood forest, forest edge, and grassy areas.Vitis riparia, Vitis sp., Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Ilex decidua, Cercis canadensis, Aesculus sp., Ulmus alata, among others (3I); has also been found on Black Gum
Erasmoneura fulminaA fairly dark and variable species, with two main forms. The vertex is mostly a dark brown to blackish color, sometimes with some small pale spots to either side of a whitish midline. The anteclypeus (lower part of the face) is brown or black, while the pronotum is dark brown or blackish with some white speckling. The scutellum is largely dark, with a pale midline between two dark lateral triangles. The underside of the thorax is entirely dark. In the nominate form, the dorsum is yellow or white, with a red, orange, brown or blackish color pattern on the wings that contrasts with pale patches. In form "bicolorata" the basal half of the wings is entirely dark, contrasting with the much paler distal half of the wings. Adults are 2.7-2.9 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Rare, recorded from a single county in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Vitis sp. (3I)
Erythroneura delicataA somewhat distinctive pale species with an orange to red color pattern. The orange marks on the middle of the wing resemble a bow-tie in shape, and there are two variations of the wing pattern. The nominate form has only reddish-orange marks on the wing, while form 'accepta' has two bold black dots on the bow-tie; the reddish-orange wing markings can be slightly thinner in 'accepta'. The top of the head has two orange parallel lines, while the pronotum has a "Y" shaped mark that is concolorous with the orange lines on the head. The scutellum is also pale, with two yellow-green to orange lateral triangles in the upper corners. The wing tips have some dark smudging to them, with four black dots that, when the wings are closed, form the outline of a triangle. Adults are 2.9-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties across the state, primarily in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Vitis spp., Aesculus sp., Ilex decidua (3I)
Erythroneura vagabundaA yellowish to orange species with two prominent small black spots on the middle of the wings. There are two yellow or orange parallel submedial lines on the top of the head, with a broad white midline in between. The pronotum has a Y-shaped mar, though in some orange individuals the posterior portion of the pronotum can be yellow or bluish, and in other individuals the Y is not as distinct, blending in with the color on the posterior portion of the pronotum. The costal margin of the wings has a small black mark in the middle, and the wing tips are smudged with brown; there is a dark brown to black thin band that goes around the base of the tips Adults are 2.9-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)A single record from Wake county in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Redbud (Cercis canadensis), Vitis sp. (3I)
Erythroneura reflectaA fairly distinctive reddish-orange and yellow patterned species with two color forms. In the most common form, the pattern on the head and thorax, which is yellow in color (sometimes with hints of orange), transitions and blends into reddish-orange markings near the base of the wings. The extent of red versus orange color can vary among individuals but there is usually a clear and noticeable transition in color. The top of the head has two bold yellow or orange parallel lines with a pale midline; these lines extend onto the pronotum before connecting, forming a long "Y" or "V" shape when viewed from above. The scutellum is concolorous with the pronotal markings, and the tips of the wings are dark. In the darker color form, the yellow markings have been replaced by red, resulting in all markings being a dark reddish color that contrasts with the bold white spots on the wings and body. Adults are 3.0- 3.3 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded recently from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains where it is relatively uncommon; possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Vitis riparia, other Vitis sp.; also Aesculus sp. (3I)
Erythroneura infuscataA dark, mostly black species that is distinctive in appearance from most other members of the family Typhlocybinae. The black wings and body have several small pale spots at the base of the wings, down the midlength, and on the scutellum. There is a prominent white patch on the costal margin of each wing, followed by a red mark. The legs and face are whitish. Adults are 2.8-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont where it is uncommon to rare, possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Quercus imbricaria, Hamamelis virginiana, Vitis riparia (3I)
Erythroneura rubraA boldly marked species with a strongly developed red-blue color pattern on the wings and body. The top of the head has two reddish orange parallel submedial lines, with a pale midline between (characteristic of this species); the submedial lines are typically broad and bold, somewhat "L" shaped. The pronotum has a "Y" or "V" shaped reddish mark in the middle and a red bar on the lateral margins; the rest of the pronotum is pale blue. The mesonotum is mostly dark red. The underside of the thorax is dark, and the anteclypeus is typically pale, concolorous with the face. The wings have a dark orange to red color pattern that contrasts with a pale blue base. There are three blue marks near the middle of the wings whose outline resembles that of an arrow. The wing tips are dark. Adults are 2.9-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)
Recorded across the state, primarily in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; probably more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Vitis spp., Rubus sp., Ilex decidua, among others (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythroneura rubrellaA colorful species with a bluish-white body and a reddish color pattern. The two reddish-orange bands on the wings extending downwards from the thorax typically have sharp right angles on the inside, forming a bluish "box". The bluish pattern on the lower, middle half of the wings resembles the outline of an arrowhead when viewed from above, with an orange center. The mesonotum is pale, ranging in color from yellow to orange. The pronotum is largely orange, with a broad "M" shape extending across it; the rest of the pronotum is bluish. The top of the head has a yellowish-green to orange pattern with parallel submedial lines; the midline of the head however is orange to red, a key characteristic for this species. Adults are 2.7-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been recorded in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Cornus pumila, C. stolonifera (Dogwood) (3I)
Erythroneura corni(Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

See: 3I.
Recorded from a single county in the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Primarily dogwood (Cornus sp.); also Quercus pagoda, Cercis canadensis, among others (3I)
Erythroneura fraxaThis species has a bold, broad reddish-orange color pattern on its wings and body, forming somewhat of a zigzag shape. When viewed from above, the reddish zigzags surround two prominent white spots down the middle of the wings. The white patch closest to the head is circular, almost oval-shaped, whereas the white patch near the tip of the wings is diamond-shaped; in some individuals, there is a small orange spot in the middle of this diamond. The shape of these two white patches can vary among individuals. There is a noticeable diagonal black mark on the costal margin of each wing, and four black spots near the rear of the wing (forming an upside down V when viewed from above). The scutellum has bold orange laterial triangles, with a paler apex; the rest of the scutellum is white. The pronotum has three prominent vertical bars, with the center one forming a skinny "Y" and extending onto the top of the head. These head lines are parallel and run very close to one another with a small gap between them; in some individuals, there is no gap and only a central bold line. Adults are 2.9-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from a few counties in the upper Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it is rather uncommon. Possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Redbud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)
Erythroneura nudata(Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

See: 3I
Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.WoodlandsVitis sp., Cercis canadensis, Aesculus sp., Cornus sp., Lonicera sp., Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Acer sp., Ulmus alata, among others. (3I)
Erythroneura rosaThis species has a reddish or brownish color pattern with parallel vertical orange/yellow bars on the vertex and a pale midline. The pronotum varies in color from yellowish-orange to reddish-brown; there are three circular pale spots along the anterior half of the pronotum. The scutellum is pale to dark, sometimes with dark lateral triangles. This is a variable species with three color forms. In the nominate form, the wings are largely a bold red color. There are three large white spots near the base of the wings, separated by a broad red clavical line. There are four smaller white spots clustered around a reddish triangle closer to the wing tips, forming a spade-like shape. The wing tips are blackish, sometimes relegated to an L-shaped line extending outwards on each tip. Form 'mallochi' resembles the nominate form but is paler overall, appearing faded. The third form 'repetita' looks quite different from the other two forms; it has three dark crossbands, one across the thorax and base of the wings, one across the middle of the wings, and another at the wing tips. Adults are 2.8 to 3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded recently from Vance and Warren counties in the upper Piedmont, constituting the first known records of this species in North Carolina; possibly more abundant across the state, especially where willows (Salix sp.) are present.Brushy vegetation, likely where willows occur.Salix myricoides, S. babylonica, S. cordata, S. bebbiana, S. petiolaris, S. caprea, S. humilis, S. interior (3I). Has been found in the state on black willow (Salix nigra).
Erythroneura aclysA very distinctive dark Erythroneura with an underlying yellow or white dorsum. There are two symmetrical blackish bands on the wings that connect near the base of the wings and extend to the tip of the head, forming a sharp dark point when viewed from above; the way these bands extend to the head is distinctive. The margins of the pronotum are a pale yellow color, distinctive for this species; the scutellum is entirely black. The sides of the wings have white, blue, and red markings bordering the main dark bands. The center of the wings has a white "four-petalled" pattern with a red dot in the center; the size of the white marks varies among individuals, ranging from large to nonexistent. Nymphs are yellowish overall. Adults are 2.7-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, only recorded a couple times from Wake county in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Redbud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)
Erythroneura ziczac
Virginia Creeper Leafhopper
See: 3I.

(Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Shrubby, brushy areas where vines occurVitis riparia, other Vitis sp. and Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythroneura elegansA somewhat distinctive species with a yellow or white dorsum and a red to dark grayish brown overlaying color pattern. There are two large white spots on the back along the fissure of the wings (one circular near the scutellum, the other clover-shaped near the wing tips), and white block-shaped patches on the costal margins of each wing; these white spots give this species a distinctive color pattern. The mesonotum is dark, with two dark red lateral triangles in each upper corner. The pronotum is dark, sometimes a bluish or greenish color, with a red bar on each margin and a red Y-shaped mark in the middle. The head has orange parallel lines that extended from the thoracic red Y; in darker, more colored individuals, the markings on the mesonotum, thorax, and head may not be as well defined and may blend together. There is a dark mark on the costal margins of the wing, and four black spots near the rear of the wing (if the wing is closed, only "3" spots may be visible; 2 of the spots are on the wing tip); the rear of the wing itself is dark. Note that there is a diagonal line extending upwards from the costal margin to the dark tips on each wing. Length is 2.7-2.9 mm. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species that includes some variation in color and pattern, see: BG.

Recorded recently from several counties across the state, where it can be locally common in the Piedmont; likely more abundant throughout the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood and open pine forest habitats.Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia); also Vitis spp. (Grape) (3I)
Erythroneura cancellataA very distinctive species with a bold orange and reddish-brown color pattern. The dark brown outer wing pattern forms an inner diamond-shaped figure with red and white marks on the inside. In some individuals, the inside of the wings lack most orange markings, leaving most of the area white instead. The center of the scutellum is also white. The top of the head, pronotum, and lateral triangles of the scutellum are concolorous with the base of the wings and are reddish-brown; the wing tips are also dark. Adults are 3.2-3.4 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont where it is fairly uncommon; possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Cercis canadensis (3I)
Erythroneura bistrataA boldly marked but highly variable species with a yellow or white dorsum with a reddish-brown color pattern. All adults have an entirely dark thorax except for a pale base to the scutellum. This species has four main color forms, and then variation in-between. In the nominate form, individuals are reddish overall with mostly red wings and two white patches: one at the base of the fissure of the wings, next to the scutellum, and the other near the wing tips; there is also a white mark on the middle of the costal margin of each wing. A color variety of this form is almost entirely red, with only the white patch near the wing tips and a small spot at the base of the scutellum. Individuals of the form 'stricta' have two white bands across the wings that separate a median dark reddish-brown saddle; this dark saddle has a dagger-shaped point extending downwards on each wing; this form also has a paler tip to the head. Individuals of the form 'rubranota' have three white spots replacing the upper white band on the wing found in 'stricta'; the spots are separated by a a bold reddish-brown band extending along the clavus of each wing. Adults are 2.9-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For additional images of variation among individuals of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont where it is uncommon; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Redbud (Cercis canadensis); also reported from Vitis sp. (3I)
Erythroneura vitis
Grapevine Leafhopper
A very distinctive species that can strongly vary in coloration and pattern. It has a color pattern that can be a combination of red, green, or dark brown. The pronotum, mesonotum, and top of the head are largely dark reddish-brown, with this color extending onto the bases of the wings. The wings have two white wing bands surrounding a 'saddle' that is concolourous with the thorax. The wing pattern itself varies in shape, corresponding with three variations for this species. The nominate form has broad white bands, with the upper band having the outline of three circular shapes that are connected to one another; this form has red lines near the base of the lower white band. Form 'corona', the form most often encountered, has much thinner white bands that are outlined and often broken by red; the saddle in 'corona' is the largest of the three forms. Form 'flava' resembles the first form, but the white bands are much broader and therefore the median saddle is smaller. Nymphs have a saddled appearance, ranging in color from orange to dark reddish-brown as the nymph ages. Adults are 2.8-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species and the various forms, see: BL.

Found across the state, with a majority of records in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain where it is locally common; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Vitis riparia, other Vitis spp. (3I)
Erythroneura tricincta
Three-banded Leafhopper
A boldly marked species with a yellow or white dorsum and a [typically] dark brown to black color pattern. The head has two parallel pale yellow-orange lines, though this mark may not be as bold or visible on some individuals. The body has three dark transverse bands- on the thorax, middle of the wings, and wing tip. The thoracic band extends across the upper part of the mesonotum/scutellum and the pronotum, a key characteristic for this species; the rest of the scutellum is yellowish. The side of the band facing the vertex typically fades into the head, which is whitish. The band across the wings typically is broad, though band width can vary among individuals and can be a truncated bowtie shape. In some adults, the median band can have a reddish-tinge. The wing tips are blackish. Nymphs are pale with two incomplete bands, on the pronotum and base of the wing stubs. Adults are 2.9-3.3 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Has been recorded recently from several counties across the state, where it is locally common (at least in the Piedmont); likely more abundant in the right habitat.Mixed hardwood forest, hedgerows, grapefields (BG)Primarily Vitis spp. (Grape), also on Aesculus sp. (3I)
Erythroneura calyculaA boldly marked species with a yellow to white body and a dark brownish to black color pattern. The wings have a prominent central band overlaying yellowish-orange stripes extending towards the wingtips. The head is pale with two parallel yellowish-orange submedial lines and a pale midline. The thorax/pronotum has a very distinctive dark brown "U", characteristic of this species. The U extends from the eyes downwards and across the top of the mesonotum. There are three color variations of this species. The nominate, common form has a broad central transverse band across the wings and a bold and broad black band across the wing tips; the width of the median band can vary among individuals. Form 'erasa' resembles the nominate form, except that the central wing band is truncated and looks more like two triangles extending towards one another from the wing margins. Form 'noncincta' has the central wing band and thoracic U both broken with disconnected marks; the median band is relegated to small lateral triangles. Adults are 2.6-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)
Recorded across the state, with a majority of records coming from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it is common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, forest edge, and adjacent habitats.Primarily Vitis spp., but also Aesculus sp., Ilex decidua, and Prunus virginiana (3I); has been found on Black Walnut as well.
Erythroneura divaA distinctive, boldly marked reddish species with a prominent transverse red band across the middle of the wings, characteristic for this species; the width of the band can vary slightly among individuals. The pronotum is almost entirely reddish, though this color can vary from red to a combination of red and black in darker individuals. The tip of the wings is blackish. There are two color variations for this species. The first, typical form has brown extending across the anterior half of the mesonotum. Form 'complementa' lacks the brown on the mesonotum which is otherwise completely yellow. Depending on the age of the individual, the vittae (stripes) on the wings can vary in color from yellow to red. Adults are 3.0-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Scattered records across the state, mostly from the Piedmont and western Coastal Plain where it is common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, forest edge, and adjacent habitats.Primarily Vitis spp. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007). Also reported from Ilex decidua, Cercis canadensis, and Ulmus alata. For a list of other plants this species has been collected on, see 3I.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythroneura integraA boldly marked species with three prominent red and black bands. The band going across the middle of the wings, which curves downward on each side toward the tips, is typically bicolored: the anterior part is dark brown to black, while the rest is red, characteristic of this species. In some individuals though almost the entire median band is red, lacking the black anterior border. The pronotum is dark brown to black, contrasting sharply with the pale, yellowish scutellum. The third band crosses the tips of the wings and is mostly blackish brown, with some red markings on the anterior side. Depending on the age of the individual, the vittae (stripes) on the wings can vary in color from yellow to red. Adults are 2.8 to 3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded recently from a few counties in the state, uncommon; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Primarily Ilex decidua, but also Vitis sp., Ulmus alata, and Cercis canadensis (3I)
Joruma piscaA small species that appears long and slender. This species looks dark, almost black overall, but in reality only the pronotum and head are dark; the wings are actually amber colored, but due to the dark abdomen, when the wings are down on the body, they appear blackish. When viewed from above, the eyes are darker than the head, and the face is a reddish color. The underside of the body is yellowish, ad the legs are a pale yellow color. The body is red near the wing bases (visible when the wings are raised), the abdomen has an orange tint on the top, and some specimens are reported to have red on the back as well. Males have characteristic genitalia with long, straight male subgenital plates covered with a comb of long setae. Females have a somewhat triangular pregenital sternite with a thin slit in the middle. (BG)Recorded recently from several counties in the mountains and Piedmont; could possibly show up anywhere in the state, but not much is known about this species.Has been found in grassy habitat amid montane forest, as well as in mixed hardwood forest.
Scaphytopius acutus
Sharp-nosed Leafhopper
A brownish leafhopper with a short but strongly produced, sharply pointed head; it is around 1.5 times as long as the width between the eyes. The wings, thorax, and head are brown, varying in darkness among individuals; the wings have scattered white areolar spots, and the veins are brown, become fucsous to black near the apex. The face is a characteristic yellow, contrasting with the rest of the body; it is angled at a roughly 45 degree angle (looks vertical). The pronotum tends to be darker than the crown, and the scutellum is yellow to orange with light markings; there are light white markings on top of the head, but nothing boldly patterned. The male subgenital plates are somewhat triangular. The female pregenital sternite has a rounded posterior margin with a small median notch. Adult males are 4.2-4.8 mm long, females are 4.8-5.3 mm. (DeLong 1948), (Hepner 1947)

Nymphs show a pointed head (characteristic of Scaphytopius) and a bicolored body, with brownish sides and a pale, whitish middle.

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.

Uncommon to locally common with scattered records across the state, likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy areas near forest; also wet meadows.Various plants; Calamagrostis canadensis, grasses, sedges, bushes, sweet fern, willows, potato, etc. (Hepner 1947)
Sophonia orientalis
Two-spotted Leafhopper
An unmistakable species, nothing else in our fauna can be confused with it. Adults are yellowish with a bold dark brown to black longitudinal stripe, sometimes bordered by red, down the center of the wings along the commissure. There are two bold black "eye" spots at the apex of each wing, where there is some rufous color present. The middorsal stripe splits into two thin, parallel bands on the head and ends at a prominent black spot at the apex of the head. Nymphs are uniformly green or light-yellow and have a shovel-shaped nose, as well as a pair of small black spots at the rear end of the abdomen (CABI).Recorded recently from Wake and Mecklenburg counties in the Piedmont, likely a recent arrival in the state and probably more abundant elsewhere as this species is expanding its range.Found in a variety of habitats, though studies have shown this species has a preference for wetter, closed habitats rather than drier, open ones (CABI).Extremely polyphagous, this species attacks more than 300 plant species in over 83 families; resident breeding populations have been recently discovered in ornamental, vegetable, and fruit crops in California (BG). For a larger list of host plants, see: PKB.
Macrosteles parvidensThis is a highly variable species, with color (primarily on the wings) ranging from green to blackish to heavily patterned. The head pattern is also variable; adults typically have 4 bold black spots on the head, 2 on the edge of the vertex and 2 further in. However, some individuals have a smaller spot in front of the inner ones (males), while other individuals have a black bar on the edge of the vertex that connects the median spots with a smaller spot on the side of the eyes. Furthermore, there are 2 bold black spots beginning on the scutellum and continuing under the pronotum, and an additional central dark spot can be present under the pronotum. Adult males are 3.4-3.7 mm long, while females are 3.7-4.2 mm. (Kwon 2010)

For additional images of this species that show the variation among individuals, see: BG.

Several records across the state, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in brushy, grassy areas.
Graminella fitchiiYellow to dull greenish overall, this species has a bold contrast between the whitish wing venation and five pale transverse longitudinal lines on the pronotum and the straw-colored body and wings. There are four small black dots along the margin of the vertex, and 2 anteapical wing cells, helping differentiate this species from other similar looking species such as Deltocephalus. The face is pale, with various shades of brown, characteristic of this species. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly excavated on either side of a median slightly produced with a broad, sunken tooth. The male genital plates are long, gradually tapering to bluntly pointed apexes. Adults are around 4.5 mm long. (DeLong & Mohr 1937)

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser. For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties across the state, but likely more abundant in the state in the right habitat.Fields and other similar, grassy habitatsGrasses. Its host is Leersia virginica, white cutgrass (BG)
Ponana limbatipennisA dark species with dark brown, smoky to black-colored wings and scutellum, with the dark coloration extending onto the base of the pronotum (which is otherwise unmarked); depending on the darkness of the wings, there is some scattered black marks that are noticeable. This species tends to have pale costal margins, but these may not be defined in dark individuals. The rest of the pronotum, head, base of the wings, and legs are a pale brown, tan color. The vertex is broadly rounded, with the ocelli large and prominent. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin slightly sinuate, with a broad but shallow median notch. The male subgenital plates are elongate and rectangular. Adults are 8.0 to 9.5 mm long. (OBSBS), (DeLong 1948) Uncommon to rare, recorded from several counties in the mountains. Has been found near montane mixed hardwood forest.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Chlorotettix galbanatusThis species is greenish overall, with a yellowish to reddish-brown tint on the wings and thorax. The wing venation is a dark reddish-brown, contrasting with the transparent wing membranes; this gives the wings a netted look. The posterior part of the pronotum and lateral triangles of the scutellum are also a light reddish-brown color. The head (vertex) is slightly wider than the pronotum, and the eyes are typically dark/black. The female pregenital sternite is distinctive with a deep, narrow slit surrounded by rounded lobes. The male has a depressed inner area at the base of the subgenital plates, appearing as if the plates are dented; otherwise, the plates are evenly and convexly rounded brom the bases to the apexes, and the apexes are obtusely angled. Adults are around 6.0-6.5 mm long. (DeLong 1918), (DeLong 1948) For more images and diagrams of this species, see: Bg and Dmitriev.Locally common; recorded across the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.?
Chlorotettix lusoriusA dark brown, rusty-colored species with contrasting pale wing venation. The crown is roundedly pointed, and there may be some small thin, transverse lines on the crown. The wings are long and greatly extend past the tip of the abdomen. The male subgenital plates are large and have thickened bases with curved, strongly diverging tips; there are scattered hairs on the sides. The female pregenital sternite is somewhat trilobate, with a prominent median projection; the sternite is colored dark brown around this median tooth. Adults are 7.0-8.0 mm long. (DeLong 1918)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from a single county in the mountainsWoodlands?
Chlorotettix iridescensGreenish-brown to brown overall with a reddish tinge, adults are around 7.0 mm long. The vertex is one-third longer in the middle than near the eyes, and is twice as wide as it is long. The vertex can be yellowish, with the ocelli green and the eyes black; the face is a brownish-yellow. The wings are brownish, subhyaline and highly iridescent with both pale and dark wing venation. The female pregenital sternite is broadly and deeply excavated, with the sides concave; near the apex it is convex, forming long sharply rounded lateral angles of the sternite. Note that because of the shape and extent of the excavation in the sternite, some of the genital structures (look like rounded lobes) are visible underneath; seeing these, combined with the shape of the sternite, are characteristic of this species. Male plates are broad and rather short, convexly rounded with bluntly angled apexes. (DeLong 1948), (DeLong 1918)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded so far from a single county in the upper Piedmont; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Grassy areas, forest edge, open woodlands, floodplain forest, wet areas (DeLong 1948)Grasses, cane, violets, similar plants of wet soils (DeLong 1948)
Scaphoideus nigrellusThis is the darkest member of this genus. This species has blackish wings (the amount of black varies among individuals, but this species looks dark to the naked eye) with rufous and bluish-gray patches. The head and thorax are also a mixture of black, bluish-gray, and yellow, and there are bricklicke black spots on the pronotum, characteristic of this species (BG). The scutellum can show three square-shaped black marks, one in each corner, with a fourth, triangle-shaped black mark in the middle. The underside of the abdomen is black while the legs are pale. Nymphs are completely black except for their pale legs.Recorded recently from a few counties in the mountains and Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in brushy, grassy vegetation surrounded by forest.Native vines
Telamona reclivataFemales are reddish-brown, with a dark brown posterior tip to the pronotum and a dark brown pronotal band that continues onto the crest. The crest itself is sort of broad and tall in the female. Males are smaller than the female, with a noticeably less pronounced pronotum. Males have a greenish-brown pronotum. Both sexes have a smoky dark tip to the wings.Uncommon, scattered records across the state. Seasonal distribution: 2 June-31 August (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; where White Oak is present.Quercus alba (CTNC); Q. rubra (CTGSMNP)
Scaphoideus opalinusTypically a gray to white species, paler than most Scaphoideus. The crown is mostly grayish-white, with a thin brown marginal area and a thin, sometimes faint orange band between the eyes. The eyes are brown to bold red, while the face is brown to golden tan with several white and brown lines below the crown. The pronotum is grayish-white, with either few markings except a couple black patches near the crown, or scattered orange-brown markings near the base and apex. The scutellum is whitish to a creamy orange color with dark brown upper corners and sometimes a reddish-orange patch in the middle. The wing color and pattern varies among individuals, but they are grayish to white with brown veins and some white, orange, and brown cells. The underside is a combination of white, brown, yellow, and gray areas; the valve is yellow and the plates are tan with an oblique brown bar. The female pregenital sternite (sternite number 7) is yellowish except for the dark brown or black posterior medial patch; there is no notch in this sternite, with the margins relatively straight. Adult males are 5.0-5.3 mm long, while females are 5.2-5.7 mm. (Barnett 1976)Uncommon, recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, but probably more abundant in the right habitat. Has been recorded from mixed to open hardwood forest habitat and maritime shrub; probably found in areas where Red Cedar is present. Various junipers, especially Juniperus virginiana (Red Cedar). Has also been taken from tall grass and pine (BG).
Memnonia flavidaA greenish leafhopper with a flattened, pointed head and a thin white line going along the margin of the head and pronotum and the edge of the wings; there is a short white "indent" on the top of the head. Males are distinguished by having brown wing tips and two small black spots on the inner edges of the wings (BG). Females have wing tips that are more green than brown, and the abdomen extends noticeably past the wing tips. Adult females are 5.4-7.9 mm long, while males are 4.7-5.8 mm.

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

An uncommon species with scattered records across the state; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Tall grass prairies, other grassy, brushy areas with plant hostsA specialist species on native prairie grasses, including bluestem (Andropogon) and Sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) (BG)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cantura jucundaReddish-orange overall with some milky-white speckling, especially on the wings and pronotum. There is a narrow black line along the margin of the vertex and a more distinct black line along the upper part of the face; between these two black lines is a cream-colored line. There are two longitudanl orange marks on the vertex. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly and convexely rounded; there is a slight indication of a medial notch. The male plates are slender and narrow to a long attenuate apex. Adults are 5.0-6.3 mm long. (Beamer 1937), (DeLong 1948) See here for more images of this species.Uncommon to rare, only recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Woodland areas, open forest, maritime shrubHerbaceous vegetation
Agalliopsis cervinaA very distinctively marked species in this genus. A brownish or greenish-brown species with a bold white crossband across the wings, varying in width and extent among individuals. The pronotum and head can also be pale as well. There are typically four bold black spots on the edge of the pronotum and the edge of the head, and the eyes also overlap/cover the edge of the pronotum.Seemingly uncommon to rare with only a handful of records for the state, but possibly more abundant in the right habitat and under collected.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and in grassy vegetation near montane forest habitat; also in maritime shrub.
Cyrtolobus maculifrontisAdults range in color from reddish to whitish-yellow. In fully marked individuals, there is a prominent blackish path near the front of the pronotum, sometimes reduced to a smaller black patch on each side of the eye; this black patch though is characteristic of this species. However, some individuals of this species can lack any sign of a black frontal mark on the pronotum. These paler individuals though have the characteristic streamlined look of this species, and also feature two prominent pale transverse bands on the posterior half of the pronotum; the pronotum lacks a prominent crest. The face is pale and coarsely punctured. There is also typically an apical dark spot on the wings, but this can lack in some individuals. Adults are around 6 mm long. (Kopp)Uncommon, recorded from a handful of counties across the state. Seasonal distribution: 23 April- August (CTNC)Has been found in brushy habitat near forest edge and near mixed hardwood forest; where oaks are present.Quercus alba, Q. falcata (CTNC); also on Q. stellata and Q. rubra (CTGSMNP)
Ponana puncticollisA brownish, speckled leafhopper. The vertex and often pronotum is marked with or without small reddish dots. Additionally, the pronotum and wings are heavily marked with small brown spots, which are somewhat evenly distributed; the wings also have one to two broken transverse black bands that are made up of larger spots. The pronotum typically has two bold black spots on the anterior margin, one behind each ocellus; in some individuals though, there is a noticeable second set of spots behind each eye, making four spots (but there is always a spot behind the ocelli). The ocelli are prominent on the vertex, often appearing as bright whitish spots. The female pregenital sternite has produced, rounded lateral angles and a concave excavation on the posterior margin, on either side of a broad and produced median lobe; there is a slight notch in the middle of the lobe. Adults are around 9.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Uncommon with widespread records across the state.Has been found in and near mixed hardwood forest.
Gyponana offulaA greenish member of the genus, this is the only species that combines densely reticulate (meshlike) wing venation with strong longitudinal veins; the clavus (inner region of the wing) is also reticulated. The longitudinal pronotal bands are not as visible in this species, producing a more unicolorous thorax. The size range for males is 8.5-9.5 mm in length; females are typically 9.5-10.5 mm, sometimes a little longer (female Gyponanas tend to be 1.0 mm longer than males, though some are even longer). Females, because of their size, can appear slender. (Hamilton 1982)Uncommon with scattered records across the state; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Mixed hardwood forest, open woodlands, forest edge, etc.Has been found on red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana) (BG)
Xerophloea major
Macropsis decisaThis species has the head wider than the pronotum. In males, the face in profile is flat to weakly bowed. Males are green (yellow when dry), with a prominent black proepimeral spot (on the side of the thorax behind the eye) and with the tarsi and apexes of the tibiae black. The wings are hyaline, infumose near the tips. Females have a face in profile that is weakly bowed. Females are an unmarked green (yellow when dry) or have a tiny black proepimeral spot. Adult males are around 4.6-5.0 mm long, while females are 5.2-6.0 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are densely covered with white hairs and are pale green overall. (Hamilton 1983)

Very uncommon with scattered records across the mountains and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, brushy area, forest edge, where willows may be presentProbably monophagous on black willow (Salix nigra) (Hamilton 1983)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Gyponana expandaA greenish species, the wings of adults can vary from having moderately dense reticulated venation to having sparsely reticulated venation with unmarked clavi.
The size range for males is 8.5-10.0 mm in length; females are typically 9.5-11.0 mm (female Gyponanas tend to be 1.0 mm longer than males, though some are even longer) (Hamilton 1982).
Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open grassy areas near mixed hardwood forest.