Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Smilia camelusThis species has a high pronotum, extending forward over the head rather than in the middle of the pronotum. In females, the pronotum is higher than in males. Females have a brownish pronotum with a broad diagonal stripe that is either green or yellowish, followed by a parallel translucent band and a white spot; however, females can vary considerably in color, with some lacking the colored stripe all together. Males, smaller than females, have a dark brown to black pronotum with the same colored and translucent stripes as in the female. The head in this species is yellowish with some hair; the eyes are brown to red, and the ocelli are pearly. The forewings are hyaline with brown bases and apices. The undersurface of the body is brownish yellow and the legs are yellowish. Males are 7 to 8 mm long, while females are 9 mm. (Kopp)Seasonal distribution: 24 April-25 September (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; where oaks are present.Quercus falcata, Q. laevis, Q. nigra, Q. stellata (CTNC)
Neocoelidia tumidifronsA yellow-orange to green robust species with a rounded head the strongly projects outwards; the antennae are also quite long. Sometimes the tips of the wings are smoky, brown. Males are plainly colored green (fresh specimens) with no markings except for, in some individuals, a prominent black spot in each anterior corner of the scutellum; there is also a black band near the tip of the abdomen. Females, green, have wings shorter than the length of the abdomen and have distinctive black marks around otherwise yellow eyes. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly excavated with a small median tooth. The males subgenital plates are triangular and pointed, gradually taper from bases to pointed apexes. Adults are around 4.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Uncommon to rare with only several scattered records across the state.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat; reportedly common in moist wooded areas where herbaceous growth is abundant (DeLong 1948)Goldenrod
Vanduzea triguttata
Three-spotted Treehopper
This species is similar to V. arquata, with a dark brown pronotum and bold black wing venation, but there is a third mark on the pronotum, a pale/white mid-dorsal spot; hence the name Three-spotted. Adult males are 3 to 3.5 mm long while females are 4 mm. See FSCA for more.

Nymphs are brown overall, speckled with white.

Seasonal distribution: 17 June-27 September (CTNC)Lespedeza sp. (CTNC)
Vanduzea segmentataTypically a greenish-yellow species, helping separate this from the other two members of this genus found in the state. Both males and females have two white bands on the pronotum; however, in females there is a bolder and larger mid-dorsal spot. Females are also greener than males, which tend to be a darker brown color. This species is quite small, with adult males being 3.5-4.0 mm long and females 4.0-5.0 mm. Nymphs are dark brown. For other images of this species, see: BG.Rare; only two records from the Piedmont. A species that is expanding north into the state. Can be active from mid-March to late November. Has been found in grassy, brushy areas. Albizia julibrissin, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Bidens alba, Citrus sp., Datura stramonium, Heterotheca subaxillaris, & Melilotus alba (FSCA)
Vanduzea arquata
Black Locust Treehopper
Males of this species are dark, blackish in color with a small white transverse band at the tip of the pronotum, and a white crescent-shaped mark on each side of the pronotum. The wings have bold, prominent black venation, and the legs and underside are dark. Females are similar to the males, but have a larger crescent-shaped mark and a browner pronotum, particularly on the front. Nymphs are dark overall with some white and brown mottling and small spines on the abdomen. Most records come from the mountains and Piedmont, where it is locally common. Seasonal distribution: 9 May-27 October (CTNC)Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge; where Black Locust is present, on which it can typically be found.Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) (CTNC). When found on the host plant, this species can occur in high density.
Thelia bimaculata
Locust Treehopper
This species has a pronounced horn that is angled upward. Adult males are reddish-brown to black with a broad yellow blotch on both sides of the pronotum. Females resemble the males, but have a faded or aged look to them: the yellow patch is still present, contrasting with the rest of the pronotum, but it appears dirty rather than the clean, sharp colors present on the male. Adult females are 11 mm long, not counting the horn, while males are slightly smaller (BG). Nymphs are dark and have a row of small spines down the back of the abdomen, and a small but noticeable forward-facing horn on the top of the thorax. Primarily found in the mountains, with several records from the Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 10 June-19 October (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; where Black Locusts are present. It tends to prefer younger Black Locust, especially trees in more direct sunlight, typically avoiding trees in dense forest (BG).Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) (CTNC); typically only found on this plant, but can sometimes be found resting on other plant species.
Publilia concavaA highly variable species, with many color forms. Females are larger than males, and have a two-humped pronotum, with one above the head and the other midway on the pronotum. Males lack distinct peaks on their pronotum. There are prominent longitudinal ridges across the pronotum, which has a heavily punctate appearance. The legs are a yellowish-orange, and the lateral sides of the body and underside of the thorax and abdomen are black. Nymphs are bicolored, with black over a green base; they have small spines extending from the abdomen.Mostly restricted to the mountains, where it is common. Seasonal distribution: late May-7 October (CTNC)Has been found in brushy vegetation near mixed hardwood, high elevation forest.Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Ambrosia sp., Eupatorium sp., Helianthus sp., Solidago sp. (CTNC); also from Erigeron sp., Verbesina alternifolia (CTGSMNP)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Entylia carinataA highly variable species. Adults have a characteristic pronotal shape that distinguishes this species from other NC treehoppers. Mature females have the front pronotal projection curving backwards, whereas males have shorter projections. Adults have orange colored legs and typically a dark underside to the thorax and abdomen. Adult males are 4.5 mm long while females are 5.0 mm. Nymphs have spiny projections and, as they age, develop a structure on the thorax that is reminiscent of the adults pronotal shape.An abundant species, recorded in a majority of the counties in the state; locally common where present. Seasonal distribution: 13 March-19 December (CTNC)Has been recorded in a variety of habitats, including montane and mixed hardwood forest and pine-dominanted areas.Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Ambrosia sp., Aster sp., Bidens bipinnata, B. coronata, Bidens sp., Conyza canadensis, Dahlia sp., Erechtites hieraciifolia, Erigeron sp., Eupatorium capillifolium, E. pilosum, Eupatorium sp., Glycine max, Helianthus anuus, H. tuberosus, Helianthus sp., Quercus palustris, Silphium sp., Solanum tuberosum, Solidago sp., Verbesina alternifolia, Vitis rotundifolia (CTNC)
Poblicia fuliginosaA dark species, almost black in color, with small white speckling on the wings. The head is short but broad and has a yellow margin to the flat edge; the eyes are equal in separation or broader than the pronotum, but not exceeding the width of the closed forewings (UDEL). The thorax and anterior abominal segments are black, while the posterior abdominal segments (most of the abdomen) are a bright red: see here. A large species, adults are 8-17 mm long. See here for other images and angles of a pinned adult. Nymphs have a vertex (top of the head) that, in the 5th instar stage, is at least 8 times wider than long.

Nymphs are grayish overall, with blackish legs, a dark brownish thorax, and a whitish abdomen and head that contrasts with the darker body. There are bumps/spike-like projections across the body. (T. Hagerty)

Uncommon to rare, not encountered frequently; recorded from a handful of counties in the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Often found in clear-cut areas, such as roads and powerlines; can also be found in semi-forested areas (T. Hagerty).Rhus spp., esp. Rhus copallinum L. (winged sumac, Anacardiaceae) in the East (UDEL)
Graminella sonoraA pale tan species with four bold black dots on the edge of the vertex; the two inner dots are noticeably larger than the two dots at the apex, characteristic of this species. Adults are small, around 3.0 mm long or smaller. The combination of the coloration and pattern, together with the small size, are key characteristics for distinguishing this species from others in the genus; the wing venation is also more complicated than in other members of the genus, with more small cells. The individual male genital plates are triangular in shape, with sharp apexes that are divergent from one another. The female pregenital sternite has a moderate, rounded excavation on the medial half of the posterior margin, with a slight convex tooth in the middle and convex lateral margins to the sternite; the excavation is bordered with brown.

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in a grassy, open area near forest edge.
Graminella villicaA brownish-yellow color overall, this species is identified by the two prominent black spots on the edge of the head, a pale yellow transverse band across the front half of the pronotum, and the narrow wings (BG). The wings are an ochre color with pale, contrasting venation. The eyes also have a rear black spot. Nymphs are a pale yellow color but show the characteristic two black spots on the head. Recorded across the state, where it seems to be most common in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, field-type habitat
Flavoclypeus aduncusA glossy brown to dark brown species with extensive pale markings, including white to yellow antennae. The posterior edge of the pronotum is white while the wings are clear. Males have a black vertex and a black frons contrasting with the pale clypeus. The pygofer (last abdominal segment) is dark brown to black laterally, on the sides. Females are typically much paler than males, being uniform white to yellow in color with a pale face. This species very closely resembles F. andromedus in coloration and pattern. However, in males of aduncus the first antennal segment is yellow while in andromedus the first segment is brown. Male brachypters are around 1.61 mm long while females are around 1.85 mm. (K & B, 2013)DuBose notes that this species has been taken on several occasions in Raleigh and also in the mountains. (DuBose)?
Flavoclypeus andromedusA glossy dark brown to black species with extensive yellow to orange markings. In males the thorax and abdomen are orange while the pronotum and vertex are black. The posterior edge of the pronotum is whitish, and there is a white patch at the base of the scutellum. The frons is black, contrasting with the orange clypeus. The pygofer is dark brown to black with a paler spot on the dorsum. Females are often colored similarly to the males, being orange in color, but some are much paler and can appear yellowish. Macropterous individuals are dark like brachypterous males and have an orange base of the wings. In some macropters the thorax is completely black with a white ring, while in others it is black and orange. This species very closely resembles F. aduncus in coloration and pattern. However, in males of aduncus the first antennal segment is yellow while in andromedus the first segment is brown. Furthermore, macropters are not known for aduncus whereas they are well known in andromedus. Another species that could be confused with F. andromedus is Delphacodes puella; some macropters resemble macropters of D. puella, but note that F. andromedus has red on the base of the wings and parts of the body. Male brachypters are around 1.52 mm long while females are around 1.83 mm; male macropters are around 2.64 mm long while females are around 2.57 mm. (K & B, 2013)A common species, recorded throughout the state. Found in grassy, field-type habitat; moist areasAristida beyrichiana (Beyrich threeawn), Eleocharis (spikerush), Paspalum (crowngrass) (UDEL)
Flavoclypeus nitensA very dark, glossy black species with a yellow to orange clypeus, antennae, and legs. In brachypters, the wings are dark. However, some individuals can seemingly have a dark clypeus (seen in a probable dark macropter). Females are sexually dimorphic, being much paler and typically uniform white to yellow or light brown in color. Note that male brachypters are around 2.35 mm long while females are around 2.84 mm. (K & B, 2013)Uncommon to rare, recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Has been collected from April through September.Has been found in grassy, open areas
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Dikrella maculataA distinctive reddish-orange species with a unique color pattern. There are large block-shaped reddish-orange marks and many small reddish-orange dots scattered across the wings; the speckling is concentrated near the rear of the wings. The scutellum is orange with a small dark orange dot at the ape and white marks on the borders, with one white mark separating the two lateral triangles. The pronotum has a wavy "M" shaped reddish-orange mark, and a smaller, similarly shaped orange mark can be found on the vertex. Adults are around 3.0 mm long. Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forests.Hackberry (Celtis sp.) (3I)
Pendarus punctiscriptusAdults are grayish-brown in color, typically grayish overall with several brown bands on the wings. The boldness of wings markings can vary among individuals. The crown is bluntly and evenly produced in both sexes, with a slight point to the apex and an overall sharp edge to the vertex margin. The face is speckled with brown and is concavely rounded. The female pregenital sternite has the lateral and median lobes equally produced, and there are submarginal spots on the sternite near the medial lobes; there is also a prominent median notch. Adult males are 5.2-5.9 mm long, while females are 6.0-7.3 mm. (Hamilton 1975)

Nymphs are somewhat bicolored, a combination of dark brown on the sides and the rest of the body a pale tan. For images of adults and nymphs, see: BOLD.

Very uncommon, recorded recently from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy areas surrounded by mixed hardwood forest.
Stictocephala stimuleaThis species is brownish overall, with long, prominent and recurved pronotal horns. There is a distinctive, pronounced curve to the pronotum. The horns have broad dark brown margins, contrasting with the rest of the body. Some individuals may have a fairly dark pronotal crest, and some individuals may have a partially green pronotum. The legs are also a dark brown color. Males are 7 to 8 mm long, while females are 8 to 9 mm (FSCA). Uncommon to rare, scattered records across the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Vitis prob. vulpina (CTNC); has also been found on Carya sp., Myrica cerifera, Prunus serotina, Quercus spp. (including Q. phellos), Solidago, and Smilax elsewhere (FSCA).
Negosiana unidentified speciesThis page serves as a placeholder for individuals that are possibly members of the genus Negosiana (which has improperly been treated as part of Prairiana for some time by certain sources). Until specimens are collected and identified, individuals that look like this (brown with dark brown to black mottling on the wings) will be placed here.Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.
Negosiana negotiosaOchreous-brown, the head and pronotum have numerous small, dark brown spots speckled across. Supposedly the dark spots on the head and thorax distinguish this species from other members of this genus by (BG). The head is moderately projected/long. The female pregenital sternite is speckled and has a wavy, sinusoidal posterior margin with a hint trace of a notch on the median lobe. Adults are 7.5 mm long. (Beirne, 1956)

See here for images of several pinned specimens: BOLD.

Unclear where in the state this species has been recorded.
Negosiana miliarisVertex and pronotum with numerous dark spots; supposedly this is the darkest, most coarsely spotted member of this genus in our area. Collection records from a couple counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; likely more abundant and overlooked.
Melanoliarus humilisA distinctive species. The vertex and mesonotum are dark brown to black, and the face is entirely fuscous except for carinae that vary from brown to dull orange. The vertex is variably wide but usually appears broad and divergent basally. The wings lack spots and are hyaline except for the apical third (the tips), which are contrastingly dark; in some specimens, the basal two-thirds of the wing are almost concolorous with the tips. The wing venation is a uniform brown color. Small, with males 4.1 to 5.0 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

See here for images of live adults, and here for pinned specimens.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Has been reported from pasture, bogs, prairie, river edge, rye, etc.; seems to predominate in damp habitats in cooler climates. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Adults have been taken from Poa pratensis, Carya sp., Asimina sp., and Medicago sativa. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Melanoliarus vicariusGeneral appearance resembles M. quinquelineatus: "The vertex and mesonotum are fuscous to castaneous in color, with the mesonotal carinae typically concolorous but sometimes a dull orange. The vertex is moderately broad and variable, with the median length typically about equal to the width of the apex of the posterior emargination. The face is usually fuscous to brown in color, sometimes castaneous, with prominent carinae that range from brown to orange. The frons is moderately narrow with the width greater than the median length. The wings are highly variable in color, being almost immaculate in some specimens and variously banded and spotted with fuscous in other specimens. Well-marked individuals have two or three spots in the costal cells. The wing venation is typically pale except where brown spotting or banding occurs." The stigma is a distinct brown color but narrower than that of quinquelineatus. Adult males are 6.0 to 8.2 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Collected from woody plants, including Quercus laevis, Galactia elliottii, Psidium quajava, and Pinus sp. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

Haplaxius radicisA brownish species that can be highly variable in coloration among individuals. The head and thorax range from pale yellowish green to dark tawny, and vary from unmarked to heavily marked with various shades of brown. The frons has highly variable markings, ranging from: lemon or pale orange upper and lower transverse bands, a pair of dark spots at the upper margin with a pale band at the lower margin, a dark upper transverse band and a faint/weak lower band, a single dark upper transverse band, or a dark brown to black transverse band at the upper and lower margins. The wings are typically hyaline with veins and stigma uncolored to brownish, though some specimens may show a distinct dark streak extending down the wings, enlargening near the apices. Adult males are 4.4-5.6 mm long, females are 4.9-5.9 mm. (Kramer, 1979)Recorded from a single county in the mountains.Grassy areasImpatiens (touch-me-not, Balsaminaceae), grasses, nettles, American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) (UDEL)
Haplaxius pusillusA reddish-brown species. The head and thorax are a pale sordid stramineous to pale yellowish-brown color, often times tinged with green. The vertex is yellowish-green, and the face itself is greenish-orange to orange-brown. The pronotum can be a boldly contrasting orange color. The abdomen is pale, ranging from greenish to orange on the underside; dorsally the abdominal segments are dark, outlined in orange. The wings are very hyaline without any dark marks; the veins and each stigma are pale to clear, sometimes darkened at the apex in some specimens. Adult males are 3.5-4.0 mm long, females are 3.7-4.3 mm. (Kramer, 1979)Uncommon, with several records from the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat surrounded by mostly pine and some hardwoods; also swept from a marsh.Has been swept from black needlerush and spartina; unclear if these are host plants.
Haplaxius pictifronsA variable species with a key characteristic: the face has two dark-brown to black transverse bands, at the base and apex. The head and thorax are pale yellowish brown with the venter lighter than the dorsum; the pronotum is darkened behind the eyes. The wings are hyaline with yellowish-brown veins and stigma, with the stigma darker in some specimens; there may or may note be an elongate brownish patch on each wing near the claval apex. Some individuals are fairly dark in coloration while others are a paler fulvous. Adult males are 4.2-5.4 mm long, females are 5.0-6.2 mm. (Kramer, 1979)

For nice images of two pinned specimens, a dark and light individual, see: UDEL.

Recorded mainly from the mountains where it is uncommon; a few records from the Piedmont. Likely more abundant in the right habitat, especially the mountains.Has been found in grassy, brushy areas near mixed hardwood forest.Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass, Poaceae), grasses (streamside), willow (Salix), cottonwood (UDEL)
Haplaxius enotatusThe head and thorax are stramineous to yellowish brown in color; the basal half of the frons and clypeus are sometimes orange or orange-brown. The crown and thoracic dorsum lack definite darker markings. The wings and veins are transparent pale to yellowish brown, with each costal margin ivory or whitish through the stigma. Adult males are 3.8 to 4.3 mm long, females are 4.1 to 5.0 mm. (Kramer, 1979)Has been recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Grassy areas, especially marshes and similar habitatGrass, Juncus (Rush, Juncaceae), ‘marsh grasses’ (UDEL)
Melanoliarus quinquelineatusThe vertex and mesonotum are fuscous to castaneous in color, with the mesonotal carinae typically concolorous but sometimes a dull orange. The vertex is moderately broad and variable, with the median length typically about equal to the width of the apex of the posterior emargination. The face is usually fuscous to brown in color, sometimes castaneous, with prominent carinae that range from brown to orange. The frons is moderately narrow with the width greater than the median length. The wings are highly variable in color, being almost immaculate in some specimens and variously banded and spotted with fuscous in other specimens. Well-marked individuals have two or three spots in the costal cells. The wing venation is typically pale except where brown spotting or banding occurs. The stigma is a distinct brown color. Adult males are 5.4 to 6.7 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

See here for a pinned specimen.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Adults have been collected from Pinus rigida, Quercus ellipsoidalis, Carya sp., Quercus laevis, Pinus virginiana, Solidago (nymphs on roots). (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

Melanoliarus unidentified speciesMixed hardwood forest, forest edge, grassy areas, etc.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Melanoliarus sablensisThe vertex, mesonotum and face are fuscous in most specimens, occasionally piceous or fuscocastaneous; the mesonotal carinae are typically concolorous but can be a contrasting orange. The vertex is elongate, with the median length greater than the width at the apex of the posterior emargination. The wings are usually almost entirely immaculate, with some specimens slightly infuscated at the apical crossveins and others with a slight dusky appearance. The wing venation ranges from yellowish to light brown, becoming darker toward the apices. The stigma is a medium brown color and short. A small species, adult males are 3.4 to 4.4 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

See here for pinned specimens.

Recorded from a single county in the mountains.Meadows, herbaceous areas, open fields, etc. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Savannah grasses, Carpinus, Populus alba, Quercus alba, Alnus rugosa, Andropogon furcatus, Spartina sp. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

Melanoliarus chuliotusA small species for the genus, adult males are 3.8-4.9 mm long. The vertex and mesonotum are a medium brown to blackish color, and the mesonotal carinae vary from being concolorous to contrastingly orange. The vertex varies in length from moderatly narrow to moderately broad. The face is various shades of brown. The wings are nearly immaculate , with most specimens having only slight brown at the apical crossveins; other specimens have the membranes of the basal half of the wings moderately brown while others have the entire wings slightly dusky, in addition to the brownish apical crossveins. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Has been recorded from the mountains and coastal plain.Limited habitat information, but possibly inhabits mesic locales. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Adults have been taken on Quercus laevis and cane (Arundinaria sp.) (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

Melanoliarus placitusThis species has a dark face, head, and thorax, ranging from fuscous to fuscocastaneous/castaneous; the carinae of the mesonotum are concolorous in most specimens but orange in others. The wings are variable in degree of spotting, with some specimens largely immaculate and others heavily spotted. The costal cell tends to have three weakly developed spots. In some specimens, the inner margin of the wings is black along the commissure, sometimes with dark spots giving an overall "key-like" appearance. The wing venation ranges from stramineous (yellowish) to brownish, with most specimens having fairly pale veins. The stigma on each wing is a bold dark brown to black. The legs are pale yellowish-brown. Adult males are typically 6.1 to 8.8 mm long, with females ranging as high as 10.7 mm. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

For more images, see here for probable images of live adults, and here and here and here for various angles of pinned specimens.

Scattered records across the state, uncommon.Has been found in maritime shrub; also reported from woodland and pine flatwoods. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)
Melanoliarus montanusThe vertex and mesonotum are dark brown, with the mesonotal carinae brownish to dull orange. The vertex is broad, with the median length noticeably less than the width at the apex of the posterior emargination. The face is typically castaneous in color, sometimes fuscous; the carinae range from yellow to orange. The wings vary from lightly to moderately spotted, with most of this speckling along the clavus and apical portions of the corium, sometimes a three or less spots in the costal cell. The wing venation is brownish with some white and dark sections interspersed; the stigma is brown. Adult males are 7.0 to 7.6 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains, likely more abundant in this region.Mountainous, hilly areasHas been collected from Hickory (Carya sp.) (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

Melanoliarus ecologusA small species, with males ranging from 3.7 to 4.5 mm long. The vertex and mesonotum are piceous (glossy brown to black) in most specimens, fuscous in others; the carinae of the mesonotum ranges from concolorous to a dull orange in most specimens, black or dark brown in others. The vertex is narrow, with the median length distinctly larger than the width at the apex of the posterior emargination. The face is piceous or fuscous with prominent carinae that are orange or yellow. The wings lack large spots or bands but have suffusion around the apical crossveins, with the membrane typically with a slightly dusky color though glossy clear in some specimens. The wing venation is typically pale, becoming brown apically. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont; should also be found in the mountains, as extensively collected from GSMNP across the state line.Floodplain woods, prairie meadow, etc. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)
Melanoliarus aridusVertex and mesonotum range in color from piceous (glossy brownish-black) to castaneous (chestnut), and the mesonotal carinae are concolorous in some specimens, but usually a dull orange or yellow-brown. The vertex is broad, with the median length equal to or exceeding the width at the apex of the posterior emargination. The face has various coloration but is usually chestnut; median carinae are usually orange. The wings are typically milky subhyaline but sometimes vitreous (clear); spotting is present but not very conspicuous. The wing veins are typically pale yellow basally, becoming brownish towards the apex; the stigma is light to dark brown. Adult males are 5.9-8.4 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

For images of pinned specimens, see: BOLD.

Unclear where in the state this has been collected before. Adults have been collected from the following plants: Helianthus sp., Prunus persica, Vernonia interior, Polygonum sp., Medicago sativa, Apium graveolens, Prunus cerasus, Citrus paradisi, Carya sp., grass sp., Gossypium sp., Tillandsia usneoides, Quercus virginiana, Zea mays, Zanthoxylum clavaherculis. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

Pentastiridius habeckorumA dark species, with the color of the vertex and mesonotum varying from stramineous to testaceous. The mesonotal carinae are colored as follows: lateral pair are mostly fuscous, intermediate pair are yellowish, and the median pair are mostly orange. The vertex is very broad, and the face is fuscous. The wings are uniformly light to medium brown, with costal and apical cells a darker brown color; the costa and stigma are whitish to stramineous. Adult males are 6.7-7.2 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

Male genitalia diagrams from Mead & Kramer: UDEL.

A rare species, known in the state from only a handful of records from three counties. Reported from sweeping cane (Arundinaria sp.) (Mead & Kramer, 1982)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Shellenius schellenbergiiA pale orange-brown species with an orange face and white vertex. The base of the wings are a bronzy-orange, the the anterior half of the wings a darker brown with bold red wing venation. The commissure of the wings is white, forming a continuous white band that extends onto the middle of the pronotum to the white vertex. The legs are pale.

For a few more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a couple recent records from the mountains and Piedmont.Shrubby areas, forest edgeAcer, American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus (UDEL); has also been found [at least resting] on Common Milkweed (Ascleipius syriaca).
Eratoneura stephensoniA pale, whitish species with a unique, characteristic reddish-orange color pattern. For the most part, the head, pronotum, and scutellum are whitish, with several small orange markings. Four medium-sized orange dots are spaced out across the base of the wings, with a fifth dot at the apex of the scutellum. There is a broken reddish-orange band that transverses across the middle of the wings; it consists of four large dots, varying in size among individuals. There is also a broken reddish-orange crossband that curves across the lower third of the wing, with many reddish dots scattered between this band and the apical cells. The wing tips are darkened. Adults are 2.7- 2.9 mm long. (3I)Scattered records across the state where it is uncommon to rare; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Oaks: Quercus alba, Quercus coccinea, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus marilandica, Quercus phellos, Quercus shumardii; also Ilex decidua (3I)
Pissonotus flabellatusThis species is boldly marked with a dark abdomen with white spots and a whitish incomplete middorsal line, black wings with broad white apical margins, and a white thorax. The head is also blackish. The frons is dark brown to black with white speckling and a white band above the clypeus. This species has considerably expanded front tibiae, which are black; this gives the impression of very broad, almost spider-like front legs. Macropterous individuals are darker than brachypters with less extensive pale markings and clear wings. Adult brachypterous males are around 2.36 mm long, while females are around 3.10 mm; macropterous males are around 3.54 mm long while females are around 3.74 mm. (Bartlett, 2000) For more images of adults and possibly nymphs, which are highly mottled, see: BG.Recorded from several counties in the mountains and Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, brushy field-type areasAsteraceae
Shellenius balliiA distinctly colored species with characteristic red and dark markings. The head, which is proportionately longer than in other similar Derbids, has a broad red band that extends across the entire length. This band narrows on the sides of the thorax, continuing onto the wings where it considerably widens up and darkens toward the wing tips; the wing venation in this widened band is the same bright red color as the beginning of the band while the wing cells in between the veins are a dark blackish-brown color, sometimes appearing spotted. The rest of the wings, thorax and head are a pale yellow color.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single record from the mountains.Acer (maple), Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam), Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus (ash) (UDEL)
Clastoptera octonotataThis colorful species has 8 brown spots, 4 on the head and 4 on the anterior border of the pronotum (BG). This species typically has a reddish body with black markings, though sometimes individuals have wings that lack much of the red color and are instead blackish. There is a bold, jagged white line across the middle of the back that forms an "M" when viewed from above. The scutellum is tan to reddish in color, and the head is whitish with a pale, concolorous face. There is also a bold, dark red line across the white pronotum. Legs are a dark red color.This species has been recorded recently from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, though possibly more abundant in the right habitat.This species has been recorded in the state from open, mixed hardwood forest.Muscadine grapevine - Vitis rotundifolia (BG)
Japananus hyalinus
Japanese Maple Leafhopper
A distinctive looking leafhopper. Adults have transparent wings, which can have a bluish, yellowish, or white tint. The wings typically have two to three transverse rufousy bands across the wings, though the bands might not be as apparent in some paler individuals and instead will be replaced by large dots. The wing venation typically is reddish. The head is distinctly pointed, and both the thorax and head are yellowish-green. Some individuals can show a grayish head and wing bands. Nymphs are also distinctive: they resemble Scaphytopius nymphs shape wise, but Japanese Maple nymphs have a much longer head and tail (BG). Nymphs have a pale yellowish-green body with a reddish-tipped abdomen.A locally common species, recorded primarily from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Woodlands, mixed hardwood forests, shrubby areas, forest edge, open woodlands, etc.Maples, both native and non-native: Acer palmatum (Japanese maple), Acer circinatum, Acer rubrum (red maple), etc. (DL)
Erythroneura rubrellaA colorful species with a bluish-white body and a reddish color pattern. The two reddish-orange bands on the wings extending downwards from the thorax typically have sharp right angles on the inside, forming a bluish "box". The bluish pattern on the lower, middle half of the wings resembles the outline of an arrowhead when viewed from above, with an orange center. The mesonotum is pale, ranging in color from yellow to orange. The pronotum is largely orange, with a broad "M" shape extending across it; the rest of the pronotum is bluish. The top of the head has a yellowish-green to orange pattern with parallel submedial lines; the midline of the head however is orange to red, a key characteristic for this species. Adults are 2.7-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Scattered records from several counties in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been recorded in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Cornus pumila, C. stolonifera (Dogwood) (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Illinigina illinoiensis
Illinois Grape Leafhopper
A pale, yellowish to white species with bold, distinctive red to black dots on the body; this color pattern is characteristic of this species, which resembles nothing else in our area. The number of dots can vary slightly among individuals, but there are typically around 8 or so main dots on the wings. There are also three bold dots on the thorax and head, in a line: one dot at the apex or lower part of the scutellum, the second on the middle of the pronotum, and the third dot on the tip of the head. Another dot can be on the side of the thorax, behind the base of each wing. The dots range in color from yellowish-orange, dark red, and black. Adults are around 3 mm long.Scattered records across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it is uncommon; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and open, coastal habitat.Vitis spp. (BG)
Erythroneura elegansA somewhat distinctive species with a yellow or white dorsum and a red to dark grayish brown overlaying color pattern. There are two large white spots on the back along the fissure of the wings (one circular near the scutellum, the other clover-shaped near the wing tips), and white block-shaped patches on the costal margins of each wing; these white spots give this species a distinctive color pattern. The mesonotum is dark, with two dark red lateral triangles in each upper corner. The pronotum is dark, sometimes a bluish or greenish color, with a red bar on each margin and a red Y-shaped mark in the middle. The head has orange parallel lines that extended from the thoracic red Y; in darker, more colored individuals, the markings on the mesonotum, thorax, and head may not be as well defined and may blend together. There is a dark mark on the costal margins of the wing, and four black spots near the rear of the wing (if the wing is closed, only "3" spots may be visible; 2 of the spots are on the wing tip); the rear of the wing itself is dark. Note that there is a diagonal line extending upwards from the costal margin to the dark tips on each wing. Length is 2.7-2.9 mm. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species that includes some variation in color and pattern, see: BG.

Recorded recently from several counties across the state, where it can be locally common in the Piedmont; likely more abundant throughout the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood and open pine forest habitats.Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia); also Vitis spp. (Grape) (3I)
Rhynchomitra recurvaA green species that resembles R. microrhina except for the head length and shape. In recurva, the head is not as long and as tapered as that of microrhina (which has a long, pointed and strongly tapered head), but not as short as that of lingula; recurva's head is stout and not sharply pointed. Nymphs are supposedly darker than those of R. microrhina, being dark brown in color.

For a couple images of nice adults, see here and here.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat; very uncommon to rare.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Eragrostis curvula (weeping lovegrass, Poaceae) (UDEL)
Kyboasca splendidaA stunning species with a distinct, unique pattern. Greenish overall with two bold blue stripes on the wings along the claval suture that are connected with a lateral blue band across the pronotum; when viewed from above, these blue lines form an elongated triangle. Some boldly marked individuals have orange bands bordering either side of the blue stripes on the wings. There is an orange mark on the anterior border of the blue pronotal stripe. There is a blue mark across much of the vertex. The wing tips have a dusky tint. The underside of the body and legs are green. Males are more brightly colored than females.Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Alders (Alnus sp.), Alnus incana, Alnus rugosa (3I)
Xestocephalus tesselatusOne of the larger members of this genus, being around 4 mm long. A brownish species, it has a high density of fine white spots on the wings, scutellum, pronotum, and head. Osborn, 1928 notes "differs from the other species in being larger and having the light and dark arragned in rather sharply contrasting tesselations." A black spot exists behind the eye, on the edge of the pronotum. The scutellum is pale brown with basal black triangles. (Tennessee 1905).Recorded from several counties in the Coastal Plain and mountains, probably more abundant in the right habitat (especially in the Coastal Plain).Recorded so far from a lawn near a big swamp and from mixed hardwood forest.
Telamona stephaniA dark species, with a mostly dark brown to black pronotum with pale green marks. The pronotal crest curves from the front of the pronotum before angling downward posteriorly. The wings have dark brown to black tips, and the venation is a bold black. The legs are dark with pale spots, and the underside of the body is dark.Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains, where it is uncommon; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest, including in higher elevations (Pilot Mountain).?
Cyarda melichariA characteristic genus with the wings distally narrowed and coming to a point, giving them an elongate appearance. Adults have grayish-brown wings with some scattered black mottling. For more images of this species, see here and here.Previously reported from NC (though unclear where); one recent record from the Coastal Plain. Probably more likely to be encountered along the coast.Weedy areasLantana camara (Verbenaceae) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Sogatella molinaA pale species with and pale transverse medial band extending across the thorax and onto the vertex; there is a dark brown band on each side of the scutellum and pronotum. The genae, the area in front of the antennae, are darkened in males, characteristic of this species; males are generally darker overall than females. The frons is either dark or pale. There is a dark brown to black mark at the apex of the clavus on the wings, though some specimens apparently can lack this mark; some individuals can also have dark tinging on the upper apical cells of the wings. (UDEL)

For figures of this species, see: Asche & Wilson.

A single record from the Coastal Plain, likely found elsewhere in this region; perhaps a recent arrival in the state.Coastal marshesPara grass (Urochloa mutica) (UDEL)