Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Amplicephalus littoralisA relatively plain, drab species, pale yellowish to stramineous (straw-colored) overall with a conical vertex. Sometimes the edges of the abdominal segments are darker. The crown, pronotum, and scutellum are stramineous to pale yellowish green; rarely does the crown have a pair of triangular spots at the apex. The forewings are subhyaline with whitish to pale yellowish green venation. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin with a distinct lobe, darkened on each side. Adult males are 2.5-4.0 mm long, while females are 3.0-4.5 mm. (Kramer 1971)Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Coastal marshes where Distichlis occurs.Seashore saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) (Kramer 1971)
Draeculacephala portolaA yellowish-green (more green than yellow) Draeculacephala with a brownish underside. Males are blackish on the underside with pale plates (the triangular-shaped genital plates at the tip of the abdomen), while females are a light brown color underneath. This species lack the blue pigmentation on the wing venation and pronotum that other members of this genus have, a helpful distinguishing characteristic; wing venation is therefore pale, almost white in color. The key distinguishing characteristic that separates this species from all other members of this genus is the inflated face profile. When viewed form the side, the face noticeably bulges outwards. This is a large member of this genus, with males around 8.1 mm long and females 9.9-10.6 mm. (Dietrich 1994), (Hamilton 1985)Rare to locally common. A coastal plain species, found primarily on the coast; there are two inland records for this species in the Coastal Plain- one from Duplin county, and the other from Edgecombe county. These inland records seems notably far from the coast but have been included on the site.Coastal sand dunes, coastal marshes (Dietrich 1994)Spartina ssp. (Dietrich 1994)
Acanalonia pumilaA very small member of this genus, tiny compared to the other Acanalonias. The vertex (head) gradually rounds from the eyes, and the costal margin of the wing is narrowly reflexed; the wings are heavily reticulared (UDEL). The 5th instar nymph of this species (which has been described) has a broad, nearly straight (or flat) head; the vertex is nearly twice as broad as long, and the face has an irregular row of sensory pits near each margin (FLEN). The eyes are large and prominent, with ocelli lacking. The nymph appears hump-backed, with sensory pits covering various parts of the whole body. Nymphs are pale cream to brownish in color, with a mottled appearance. The penultimate instars are strongly mottled and marked with light to dark brown. Nymphs are 3.9 mm long. For more information on the nymphs, including some drawings, see: FLEN.Strictly coastal, recorded from a couple counties in the southeastern portion of the coast; possibly more abundant in other coastal counties. This species has been reported as locally common in coastal sea grasses at times.Coastal see grassesBorrichia arborescens (tree seaside tansy; Asteraceae), Argusia gnaphalodes (sea rosemary; Boraginaceae; as Mallotonia gnaphalodes); Batis maritima (turtleweed; Bataceae) [this is the primary host plant], Salicornia depressa (Virginia glasswort; Chenopodiaceae, as Salicornia virginica), Suaeda linearis (annual sea-blite; Chenopodiaceae) (UDEL)
Aphelonema simplexA sexually dimorphic species, with the males reddish in color and the females, slightly larger, a tan to light brown color. The very short, flat head is very distinctive; the front of the head is circular in shape. (UDEL)This species can be locally abundant; it is primarily coastal in the state, having been recorded from several counties in the Coastal Plain. Coastal marshes, cordgrass habitatSpartina patens (cordgrass, Poaceae) (UDEL)
Pentagramma vittatifronsA greenish species with transverse orange bands on the frons. Adult males are less than 7 mm long while females are 7 mm. See UDEL for images of a pinned specimen (scroll down on the page) and BOLD for several other pinned specimens.Coastal, can be locally common and abundant. Likely found throughout the coast.Coastal marshesSpecies in this genus with known hosts are monophagous on bullrushes. This particular species is known from Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus validus) (UDEL)
Prokelisia marginataA light brownish species with yellowish to hyaline wings and a pale thorax and face. The frons has dark brown longitudinal markings along the median and is widest in the basal third; it is about two times longer than it is wide.
Adult males are 2.3-4.1 mm long, while females are 3.4-4.4 mm. (Wilson, 1982)
Locally common along the coast where it has been recorded, probably found throughout the coast.Grassy, marshy areas with Spartina (UDEL)Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) (UDEL)
Tumidagena propinquaA very distinctive genus. Adult males are pale with black-tipped wings and an orange abdomen and legs. The tip of the abdomen is also black (the pygofer), and there is a white band above the black on the wings. Females are completely pale. Note the length of the head, which extends well past the eyes. The other species in this genus that has been recorded in North Carolina, T. terminalis, can best be distinguished visually by the length of the head. In propinqua, the head is slightly more than twice as long as the width at base; in terminalis, the head is longer, being almost three times as long as the width at the base. The longer head of terminalis can also be seen when viewed from the underside: propinqua vs. terminalis.Recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain, likely more abundant along the coast in the right habitat.Coastal salt marshesSpartina cordgrasses
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Prokelisia croceaA distinctive member of this genus, yellowish-orange overall with orangish markings on the thorax and face. Otherwise, the face is pale, orange-yellow laterally and pale medially. See here for images of live adults. (UDEL)Recorded from the coast, likely more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, coastal habitatCoastal grasses, cordgrass (Spartina alternifolia) (UDEL)
Tumidagena terminalisA very distinctive genus. Adult males are pale with black-tipped wings and an orange abdomen and legs. The tip of the abdomen is also black (the pygofer), and there is a white band above the black on the wings. Females are completely pale. Note the length of the head, which extends well past the eyes. The other species in this genus that has been recorded in North Carolina, T. propinqua, can best be distinguished visually by the length of the head. In propinqua, the head is slightly more than twice as long as the width at base; in terminalis, the head is longer, being almost three times as long as the width at the base. The longer head of terminalis can also be seen when viewed from the underside: propinqua vs. terminalis.Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain, likely found throughout the coast in the right habitat.Coastal salt marshesSpartina cordgrasses
Spartidelphax detectusA pale, whitish species with a robust body. The head, including the eyes, are slightly larger than the pronotum, and the vertex in dorsal view projects past the eyes. Macropters (long-winged) are darker than brachypters, with the abdomen and lateral portion of the mesonotum a brownish color. However, macropterous wings are clear (just like brachypterous wings) and extend past the length of the abdomen. Both Spartidelphax species are extremely similar, though S. detectus is slightly smaller than penedetectus. The best field mark for differentiating the two species without dissection is the length of the vertex. In S. penedetectus, the vertex is nearly 1.5 (range around 1.34 to 1.5) times longer than it is wide; in S. detectus, the vertex is slightly shorter, being about 1.3 (range around 1.25 to 1.31) times longer than wide. Note the slight difference in the lengths with these two specimens. In penedetectus, brachypter males have an average body length of 2.33 mm while macropters have an average of 3.79 mm; female brachypters have an average length of 3.06 mm while macropters have an average of 4.07 mm. In detectus, brachypter males have an average body length of 2.28 mm while macropters have an average of 3.29 mm; female brachypters have an average length of 2.89 mm while macropters have an average of 3.61 mm. Looking at male genitalia, the aedeagus of penedetectus has ventral teeth or fine serrulations, while in detectus is has long rows of lateral teeth extending beyond the distal third of the aedeagus. Nymphs of this genus are whitish overall. For more information on Spartidelphax and differentiating to the two species, see: Bartlett 2014.Recorded along the coast where it can be locally abundant. Likely found throughout our coastal habitats where suitable habitat exists.Coastal marsh grass, spartina in particularSpartina patens (Poaceae, saltmeadow cordgrass), Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass). Spartidelphax detectus is likely a specialist on S. patens, with S. alterniflora “an inferior host plant for development” (UDEL).
Evacanthus ustanuchaMales have moderately long wings that extend past the tip of the abdomen. The venter is orange-yellow, unmarked except for fuscous claws on the legs. The body is mostly pale brown, with two bold black spots on the head and fuscous speckling on the rest of the head, the middle of the pronotum, and the scutellum. Wings are ivory-white, sometimes with a yellow tint; there is a broad blackish-brown to black band that extends from the sides of the pronotum down the clavi and commissure of the wings before curving towards the wing tips. [NOTE: the black band (which is broken by the claval suture on each wing) does not reach all the way to the edge of the wings, helping distinguish this species from E. bellaustralis.] In males collected from Chestnut Bald, the entire pronotum was dark; see comments section below. Females have short, rounded wings with more than one abdominal segment exposed. Females are tan or orange, sometimes yellowish. They are patterned as in the males with dark, black markings on the wings and pronotum, or with markings that are paler and less extensive (more of a pale brown). In these paler individuals, there is a black mark on each side of the anterior margin of the pronotum. Adult males are 4.3-4.7 mm long, females are 5.0-6.0 mm. (Hamilton, 1983)A localized, mountaintop-inhabiting species found on several peaks in several counties in western North Carolina. There is a considerable gap between Yancey, Transylvania, and Macon counties, where this species has been recorded, so probably found at least between these two counties. However, the individuals in Transylvania and Macon counties could represent a separate species. See comments below.Has been found near high elevation spruce-fir coniferous forests, in grassy vegetation.Probably Diervilla (bush-honeysuckle), the host plant for a northern member of this genus [pers. comm. A. Hamilton].
Philaronia canadensisThis species externally resembles the Meadow Spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius) but does not have the raised wing veins of Philaenus. Unlike Philaenus, in which the wing veins are not distinct, Philaronia have dark, distinct [and noticeable] veins that branch towards the edges of the wings. This is a dark species (as seen in the pics above), with a combination of gray and black on the body. The wings are covered with pale hairs, characteristic of this genus, that stand out against the dark body (see pics above); in Philaenus, the hairs are not as prominent as they are transparent and blend in with the underlying wing color. For a nice comparison between wings of Philaronia vs. Philaenus, showing hairs and veination, click here.
The antennal ledge, located above the base of the antennae, is also contrastingly redder than the rest of the face. Females, which have dark faces, are 6.0-6.7 mm in length while males, which have a mostly yellowish face, are 5.4-6.2 mm long. (BG).
This is also the only spittlebug genus with orange nymphs; click here for an image of a Philaronia nymph.
A rare species, P. canadensis has only been recorded from a single county. Has been recorded recently in a montane meadow with brushy vegetation; there is probably a higher likelihood of finding this species where there is Goldenrod. Additionally, in Ontario this species has been found in river bottoms and along lake shores (BG).Nymphs probably feed on the subterranean parts of herbaceous plants; adults have been found on Goldenrod (Solidago) (Hamilton, 1982)
Shellenius balliiA distinctly colored species with characteristic red and dark markings. The head, which is proportionately longer than in other similar Derbids, has a broad red band that extends across the entire length. This band narrows on the sides of the thorax, continuing onto the wings where it is considerably widens up and darkens toward the wing tips; the wing venation in this widened band is the same bright red color as the beginning of the band while the wing cells in between the veins are a dark blackish-brown color. The rest of the wings, thorax and head a re a pale yellow color.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single record from the mountains.Acer (maple), Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam), Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus (ash) (UDEL)
Spartidelphax penedetectusA pale, whitish species with a robust body. The head, including the eyes, are slightly larger than the pronotum, and the vertex in dorsal view projects past the eyes. Macropters (long-winged) are darker than brachypters, with the abdomen and lateral portion of the mesonotum a brownish color. However, macropterous wings are clear (just like brachypterous wings) and extend past the length of the abdomen. Both Spartidelphax species are extremely similar, though S. penedetectus is slightly larger than detectus. The best field mark for differentiating the two species without dissection is the length of the vertex. In S. penedetectus, the vertex is nearly 1.5 (range around 1.34 to 1.5) times longer than it is wide; in S. detectus, the vertex is slightly shorter, being about 1.3 (range around 1.25 to 1.31) times longer than wide. Note the slight difference in the lengths with these two specimens. In penedetectus, brachypter males have an average body length of 2.33 mm while macropters have an average of 3.79 mm; female brachypters have an average length of 3.06 mm while macropters have an average of 4.07 mm. In detectus, brachypter males have an average body length of 2.28 mm while macropters have an average of 3.29 mm; female brachypters have an average length of 2.89 mm while macropters have an average of 3.61 mm. Looking at male genitalia, the aedeagus of penedetectus has ventral teeth or fine serrulations, while in detectus is has long rows of lateral teeth extending beyond the distal third of the aedeagus. Nymphs of this genus are whitish overall. For more information on Spartidelphax and differentiating to the two species, see: Bartlett 2014.Recorded along the coast where it can be locally abundant. Likely found throughout our coastal habitats where suitable habitat exists.Coastal marsh grass, spartina in particularSpartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Clastoptera saintcyri
Heath Spittlebug
A variable species with many color forms. Males are typically almost all black with yellow legs. Some black males also have red eyes and a hint of red on the elytron. The black can vary to a brownish color, and the black can either cover the whole elytron or only part ot it; the underside is typically yellow except for a black band between the eyes. Females are frequently boldly striped with alternating bands of yellow and black on both the wings and thorax and head. In some individuals, part of the yellow markings is replaced with orange. Adult males are 2.7- 3.5 mm long, while females are 3.2- 4.1 mm; see here for a size comparison in a mating pair. (Hamilton, 1982)Several scattered records across the Piedmont and mountains, with one recent record; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Heath situations in mixed pine-maple forests (BG)Nymphs feed on Large Cranberry (Vaccinium mactocarpon) and probably many other Ericaceae (heaths, flowering plants). Adults feed on various Ericaceae, including: Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), Evergreen shrub (Leucothoe sp.), Huckleberry (Gaylussacia sp.), Leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), Sweet Gale (Myrica Gale), and Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum). (Hamilton, 1982)
Neomegamelanus elongatusA sexually dimorphic species that has the elongated profile characteristic of this genus. Males are darker than females, which are fairly pale to light brown in color. Males have blackish wings while [presumably] females have mostly clear wings except for a dark edge to the wing tips. This species differs from N. spartini in color pattern, the presence of a pale, whitish middorsal line down the length of the body, and having pale rather than dark legs. Nymphs range in color from yellowish to fairly dark (presumably based on sex). (UDEL)A locally common species along the coast. In the appropriate habitat, on Spartina patens, this species can occur in a high density. Coastal salt marshes and other similar habitat with SpartinaSpartina patens (saltmeadow cordgrass) (UDEL)
Neomegamelanus spartiniA sexually dimorphic species that has the elongated profile characteristic of this genus. Males are bicolored, with black wings and a mostly black underside contrasting with a tan/brown head and thorax. Males also have a bicolored face, with a dark half of the frons and dark clypeus. Females are tan overall without any noticeable contrasting mark. The face is brown as well. This species differs from N. elongatus in color pattern, the absence of a pale, whitish middorsal line down the length of the body, and having dark rather than pale legs. (UDEL)Recorded from several counties along the coast, probably more abundant in the right coastal habitat.Coastal salt marshes and other similar habitat with SpartinaSpartina patens (saltmeadow cordgrass) (UDEL)
Keyflana hastaA light brown, semi-elongated species. See here for several images of a pinned specimen. Recorded from the coast, probably more abundant in the right coastal habitat.Blackrush (Juncus roemerianus; Juncaceae) (UDEL)
Paraphlepsius fuscipennisA tawny brown species mottled with white irrorations. The crown is short and rounded, not produced. The female pregenital sternite has sharp lateral lobes and a minute notch on the median projection; there is a small dark border on the sides of the projection. The male subgenital plates are long and triangular. Adult males are 5.3-5.8 mm long, females are 6.0-6.6 mm. (Hamilton 1975)Recorded from several counties in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant along the coast.Only found in saltwater marshes (Hamilton 1975)
Paraphlepsius planusA brownish species, uniformly colored, with a short crown rounded apically that is sharply angled towards the face. The reticulated markings on the wings are blurred/smeary and do not touch the wing venation. The male subgenital plates are triangular with attenuate apexes. The female pregenital sternite is quite long with sharply pointed lateral posterior tips and an excavated inner area with a small median notch; there is a slight brown coloration around the sides of this excavation. Adult males are 6.5-7.2 mm long, females are 6.9-7.8 mm. (Hamilton 1975)

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev. For additional images of specimens of this species, see: BOLD.

Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Swampy areasMaiden cane (Panicum hemitomum) (Hamilton 1975)
Arundanus carolinusSimilar to A. latidens in markings and appearance, but has a more produced head. The vertex is bluntly angularly produced, a little wider between the eyes than the median length. Overall, this species is brown tinged with orange. The vertex margin is yellow, bordered above and below with a waved black line; often the above line is broken into elongate dashes. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin concavely excavated with a short, broad tooth in the middle (the roundness of the excavation is interrupted with this tooth). The male genital plates are long and slender, diverging slightly from one another. (DeLong 1941)Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Moist areas where the host plant grows.Cane/native bamboo (Arundinaria)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Arundanus crumbiOrange-yellow overall, with a broad wavy line on the anterior margin of the vertex and four quadrate spots above this; the central pair of spots are larger. The wings are a smoky yellow-orange color, with yellow-orange venation. The female pregenital sternite is broadly and angularly excavated; note that the excavation is rounded and is broad and moderately deep. The male genital plates are elongate, gradually tapering to blunt apexes. Adults are 5.0-5.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser

Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Moist areas where the host plant grows.Cane/native bamboo (Arundinaria tecta)
Arundanus fastigatusSimilar to A. latidens in markings and appearance, but has a more produced head and the brown band above the pale marginal band is more broken. The vertex is strongly produced and bluntly angled, a little wider between the eyes than the median length. Overall, this species is orange to brown in color. The vertex margin is white, bordered below with a narrow black line and above by an irregular/broken brown line composed of elongated spots. The wings are smoky brown with pale wing venation. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin truncated or sinuate. The male genital plates are long and bluntly pointed, rounded at the apex and diverging from one another. Adults are around 5.5 mm long. (DeLong 1941)Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Moist areas where the host plant grows.Cane/native bamboo (Arundinaria)
Arundanus parvulusA small species that is orange overall without defined color markings except for "a narrow pale waved marginal band between a narrow ventral marginal line, which is waved, and a few faint markings above [the] margin, especially a pair of faint spots [in the] middle and a faint spot next [to] each ocellus." The vertex is bluntly angled and is 1/3 wider between the eyes than the median length. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly, concavely rounded; the inside of this excavation can be slightly waved. The male genital plates are long and slender, triangular in shape. (DeLong 1941)Only recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Moist areas where the host plant grows.Cane/native bamboo (Arundinaria tecta)
Arundanus sarissusThis species resembles A. latidens in general appearance but has the upper brown band on the vertex margin more broken and uneven. Adults are orange-yellow with a white vertex margin, bordered below by a black band and above by a brown band that is formed from three contiguous dark spots that are elongated; the central pair of spots are the largest. The vertex is bluntly angled, 1/3 times wider between the eyes than the median length. The female pregenital sternite appears truncated, with "the posterior margin roundedly excavated, the central portion of which is filled to the distance of the lateral angles with what appears to be an underlying membrane." The male genital plates are tapered to bluntly pointed apexes, appearing triangular and divergent from one another. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (DeLong 1941)Only known from a single county in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Moist areas where the host plant grows.Cane/native bamboo (Arundinaria tecta)
Sanctanus aestuariumA very distinctively colored member of this genus with a broad, bluntly rounded vertex. Yellow to orange overall ontop of a base white color; there is a pair of oblique orange spots/bands on the vertex. The pronotum has a large orange spot on the anterior margin between the eyes, with another orange spot behind it in the center; there are also large orange spots behind each eye. The face is largely black. The anterior angles of the scutellum are orange; otherwise, the scutellum is an ashy white. The wings are orange with white venation, and the cells closer to the apex are margined with fuscous; there is a prominent black mark on near the middle of the costal margin, and an additional black mark near the apex and base of the wings. The male subgenital plates are short and strongly rounded convexly to pointed apexes. The female pregenital sternite is short on the lateral margins, with a broad trilobate posterior margin; there is a slight notch on either side of the central lobe, but the coloration causes the margin to appear trilobate. Adults are around 4.0 mm long. (DeLong & Hershberger 1946)Uncommon to rare in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the region in the right habitat.In and near tidal salt marshesPresumably salt marsh grasses
Draeculacephala savannahaeA tan, brownish species that has a yellowish "faded line" around the edge of the wings. The crown is marked with thin black lines and small black dots, and the scutellum has two semi-faint black triangular-shaped black spots along the anterior margin. The wing venation is pale, contrasting with the tan wings. There is a black line around the sides of the body, and the face and underside of the body are a light brown. Females have long pointed heads, while males have much shorter heads. The female pregenital sternite is moderately to strongly produced with a noticeable projection on the posterior margin. Adult males are 5.4-6.4 mm long, while females are 6.5-7.4 mm (though males may range up to 6.9 mm and females up to 7.8 mm). A couple records from the Coastal Plain, probably more abundant near the coast (though this species may be a recent arrival in the state as it was previously known as far north as South Carolina). Near coastal marshesReported from a grass-vetch mixture: Eremochloa ophiuroides-Vicia sp.
Evacanthus chlamidatusMales have elongated wings that greatly extend past the abdomen. Males are partially pale orange, with dark, infuscated claws. The entire pronotum (except for the outer margins), the scutellum, and two spots on the head and some blotches around these spots are blackish-brown to black. The wings have a broad, outwardly-curved black band that extends from the base to apex of each wing, along the clavus and commissure; the band is largely unbroken. Females have extremely short, rounded wings with more than two abdominal segments exposed. Females are light brown, mottled with brown on the head, lateral margins of the pronotum, and commissure (inner margins of the wings) and clavi; there is a brown dash near the apex of the wings. There are two bold black spots on the head. Adult males are 5.6 mm, females are 5.3 mm. (Hamilton, 1983)Endemic to Roan Mountain, NC, where it could be locally common.Montane grassy, brushy areas
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Alebra castaneaeMales are a pale to bright yellow color overall without any markings. Females are yellow to ivory colored with a pale tegmina. The wings are slender and proportionately long, being more than 4 times as long as wide. The head is distinctly narrower than the pronotum and is slightly pointed. The lateral margins of the pronotum are slightly diverging at about a 40 degree angle. Adult males are 3.7- 4.3 mm long, while females are 3.8- 4.5 mm. (Hamilton, 1995)Rare; recorded from a single county in the state.Where chestnut occurs.Castanea pumila (Hamilton, 1995)
Sayiana sayiA pale, bicolored species: the head, thorax and base of the wings are whitish while the posterior 2/3 of the wings are a golden color [in fresh individuals]. The wings greatly extend past the abdomen, with large antennal clubs extending out from the head. Along the costal margin of each wing, there is a characteristic hook-like projection projection.

Check here for multiple angles of a pinned specimen: UDEL. And for additional images of this species, see: BG.

A single record from the mountains; rare.
Stictolobus minutusA hornless, brownish species with white speckling on the front of the pronotum. There are two pale lines following the ridge and edge on each side of the pronotum. Adults are 4.6 mm long. See FSCA for more.Rare, reported from a couple counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (CTNC)
Erythroneura nudata(Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

See: 3I
Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.WoodlandsVitis sp., Cercis canadensis, Aesculus sp., Cornus sp., Lonicera sp., Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Acer sp., Ulmus alata, among others. (3I)
Osbornellus rotundusA golden yellowish-orange species with a broad reddish-orange band in front of the eyes. There are three dark brown to black lines on the vertex: one in front of the reddish band, and two others on the crown margin. There is a reddish band at the anterior and of the pronotum, and a broken band near the posterior edge; otherwise, the pronotum is yellowish with some black marks. The scutellum is yellow and orange, with a bold orange triangle in the anterior corners. The wings are yellowish with some dark brown to black and white marks; the venation is dark brown to black. The underside is a pale yellow color. The female pregenital sternite (sternite number 7) has the posterior margin truncate or slightly produced with a small median projection; otherwise, the posterior margin is straight. Male subgenital plates are long and acutely tapered, with long filamentous apexes. Adults are around 5.0-5.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, but likely under collected and more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in semi-open woodlands dominated by pine, and mixed hardwood forest; reported from herbaceous vegetation in open woodlands (DeLong 1948)
Cyrtolobus vauA small robust species with a noticeable crest on the pronotum (lower on males) and prominent markings. This species varies greatly in color and size, with females larger and lighter than males. The transverse pronotal band is prominent, pale bordered with a deep brown in females, whereas the lateral stripe is lacking. Females have a distinct light brown coloration, with the pronotum elevated slightly behind the head. The female's forewings are hyaline with brownish wing tips. The head is small, pale yellow punctured with brown. The eyes are large and grayish-brown, ranging to red in males; the oceeli are small and hairy. The legs and undersurface of the body are a uniform yellowish color. Males are similar to females but are blackish overall, with prominent white transverse bands. In both sexes the mid-dorsal spot is large and prominent. Adults are between 5.5 and 6.5 mm long. (Kopp)Seasonal distribution: late March-5 September (CTNC)Found in a wide variety of habitats where oak is present, including mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. stellata (CTNC)
Catonia pumila
Dwarf Catonia
A small species with a variable mottled color pattern. The wings vary from being uniformly dark brown to highly mottled in color, with black, brown, and gray patterning, typically with two dark V-shaped bands; some individuals have a more uniform wing color and lack the bands. The frons and clypeus are a pale yellowish-brown, either unbanded and therefore somewhat uniform in color or having a median white transverse band. The pronotum and vertex are a pale brown, sometimes with a reddish hue. The underside of the body and the legs are also a light brown color. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Uncommon to scarce, when found there is typically only one individual present [at night]; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in and near mixed hardwood forest. Pinus sp., a variety of oaks (Quercus sp.), Carya sp., Hicoria sp. (O'Brien, 1971)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Catonia carolinaA grayish brown species with highly mottled wings that sometimes have a faint U-shaped transverse brown band. The thorax tends to be a fairly dark brown, and the wing veins are pale with small black spots along their length; the venation near the wing tips is bold, lacking black spots. The underside tends to be a pale brownish color, and the face is pale yellowish-brown in color. There are two pale white bands across the face: a typically incomplete band in the middle, between the base of the eyes, and an incomplete one along the edge of the clypeus. The clypeus itself is concolorous with the rest of the frons. Adults range in length from 3.1-5.8 mm. (O'Brien, 1971)Recorded across the state, with a majority of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; can be locally abundant where found.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, open forest, and forest edge.Thespesia grandiflora (Malvaceae; as Montezuma speciosissima), Inga vera (river koko, Fabaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) (UDEL)
Catonia lunataThis species has a mottled color pattern, with gray, brown, and black wings; there is typically a U-shaped dark narrow band across the middle of the wings. The venation is pale with black spots along their length. The pronotum and vertex are mottled like the wings. The face is bicolored, with the orange-brown base contrasting with a broad white transverse band; the clypeus is also pale. Adults are 4.0-5.6 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Scattered records across the state, uncommon to scarce; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat near pines. Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry, Ericaceae) (UDEL)
Catonia piniA mottled hopper with an orange to reddish-brown to brown color pattern and two dark brown curved transverse bands across the wings, the upper of which broadens laterally; the wing venation is marked with black spots. The frons is bicolored, being brown to slightly reddish-brown with a white transverse white band and a pale clypeus. The vertex and pronotum are reddish-brown to orange. Adults are around 5.0 to 6.2 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Rare in the state, though perhaps under collected; a few records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Baptisia tinctoria (horseflyweed, Fabaceae) (UDEL)
Catonia navaA dark and distinctive member of the genus. It is a mostly bicolored species, with prominent black wings with pale, grayish bases; the border between the gray and black is crescent-shaped. The thorax and head are mottled black and white/gray, and the underside of the body and legs are very dark. The face is very dark, with a prominent lower, broad black band, a bold white band, and a mottled upper dark section, paler than the lower black band; the clypeus is pale and mottled. This is a large species, with adults typically 5.8-7.2 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Scattered records across the state; possibly more abundant in the right habitat, uncommon.Has been found near and within mixed hardwood forest. Cornus sp. (dogwood), Platanus sp. (sycamore), Acer sp. (maple) (UDEL)
Catonia cinctifronsA bold and distinctive multicolored species. The wings have a combination of black, white, gray, and orange coloration; some individuals lack the orange-brown aspect. The pronotum is black and orange. The face is black with two bold white transverse bands; the clypeus is pale. The wing and face pattern are characteristic of this species. Adults are 4.2-5.2 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Scattered records across the state, with a majority coming from the mountains and western Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat, but an uncommon to scarce species.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Pinus clausa (sand pine), Pinus sp., Quercus sp. (oak), Carya sp. (hickory) (UDEL)
Catonia bicincturaA dark brown and reddish species. The wings are mostly uniformly brown, with faint whitish patches to the outer edge of the wings; some individuals may show an indistinct broad white transverse band on part of the wings. The wing veins are pale with many small black spots along their length. The thorax is a bold reddish color, and the head is yellowish-brown. The underside of the body is dark reddish-brown, and the legs are dark. The face is an orange-brown color, with two bold white transverse lines. Adults are 4.2-5.1 mm long. (UDEL)An uncommon species, recorded across the state with a majority of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant in areas with pine and beautyberry.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and pine forest.Pine (Pinus sp.), Callicarpa americana (American beautyberry, Verbenaceae) (UDEL)
Catonia pictaA very colorful and distinctive hopper with reddish-brown to orange wings with a prominent grayish-white transverse band; the thorax and head are a vibrant reddish color. The underside of the body is orange-brown, as are the legs. The face is tricolored and distinctive, with the top black, followed by a white band, then black and orange-brown and finally another white band; the clypeus is a pale orange color. Adults are 4.4-5.8 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)An uncommon species that can be locally abundant in some areas; recorded from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Pinus sp. (UDEL); also reported from oak-hickory.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Telamona decorataThis species is grayish to brown overall, with a varied mottled color pattern of light and dark. The pronotal crest itself, which is smaller and not as high compared to other members of this genus, is a much darker color than the rest of the pronotum, and there is some pale speckling across the front. The rear of the wings has a dark, smoky smudge.Recorded from the mountains, with a single record from the Coastal Plain. Seasonal distribution: 19 June-13 September (CTNC)MontaneCastanea dentata, Quercus alba, Q. rubra (CTNC); also Q. stellata (CTGSMNP)
Philaenus spumarius
Meadow Spittlebug
A highly variable species, ranging in color from brown, green, yellow, pink, pale, black-and-white, mottled, etc. It may appear solid in coloration or have different patterns across its wings. For an example of some color varieties, see: Meadow Spittlebug Variation. Wings have a fine covering of hair that typically blends in with the wing color, and veins are not raised and dark as in Philaronia. Adult males are 5.2-6.4 mm long, females are 5.4-6.8 mm. Nymphs are also variable in color: the first instar is orange, instars 2 through 4 are yellow, and the last nymphal stage is pale green NCSU. There are two distinct subspecies (of four total known) that have been recorded in the state recently: Philaenus spumarius typica, which is pale and mottled, and [possibly] P. s. quadrimaculatus, which is dark and mottled. These two subspecies, especially the latter one, maybe confused with Aphrophora quadrinotata; however, P. spumarius lacks the heavily pitted elytra found in A. quadrinotata.Common and widespread across much of the state, with many records from the mountains and Piedmont. Seemingly absent from much of the coastal plain, but this could be due to a lack of collecting or searching in those areas.Found in herbaceous, vegetated areas and field-type habitat, but can also be found near or even within forested areas.This species infests over 400 different plants, including alfalfa, red clover, wheat, oats, corn, and strawberries. BG. Has also been found on Milkweed. This species has also been found on Ambrosia, Solidago, Betula, Medicago sativa, Trifolium, Zea mays, and Fragaria ananassa (DL).
Lepyronia angulifera
Angular Spittlebug
A small spittlebug, brownish in coloration with a dark brown to black "V"- shaped mark on the elytra, sometimes less boldly defined in certain individual. Compared to L. quadrangularis, this species is smaller, with comparatively shorter but broader wings; it is very helpful to have measurements of potential members of this species. L. angulifera also has a shorter and declivous top of the head than L. quadrangularis; the head more strongly slopes downward (BG); this field mark is not always apparent unless viewed from the side. Males are 4.0-4.4 mm long, while females are 5.0-6.1 mm long (MNFI).Uncommon to rare, recorded from only several counties.Found in areas where prairie ferns and spike-rush, as well as other plants, can be found. This species may favor areas where burns periodically take place. (MNFI)Feeds on a wide variety of plants; closely associated with prairie ferns and spike rush (Eleocharis sp.), at least in Michigan (MNFI); also feed on Bristlegrass (Setaria geniculata), Espartillo grass (Sporobolus indicus), and sedge (Cyperus swartzii). (Hamilton, 1982)
Lepyronia quadrangularis
Diamondback Spittlebug
Typically a brownish spittlebug with two prominent dark (black) bands going across the wings, forming a diamond-shape when viewed from above; some individuals can also be orange in color. Wings have a fine covering of hairs. Adults have a horizontally-shaped, flattened head (noticeable when viewed from the side) which does not strongly slope downwards in the front. In addition, it has long wings that are narrower than in other species of this genus. Adult males are 5.8-7.2 mm long, females are 6.6-8.5 mm. (Hamilton, 1982)

The youngest nymphs are yellowish in coloration while later instars are greenish with a prominent black band. BG

Common and widespread across the state, recorded from the mountains to the coast. Frequently found in weedy, field-type habitat along forest-edge. BGGrasses, shrubs, herbs, and trees. Solidago. Medicago sativa, Quercus falcata (DL)
Aphrophora saratogensis
Saratoga Spittlebug
The adult is almost always reddish in color with white patches on the wings and a broad white line or 'arrow' running down the middle of the thorax and onto the head. Some individuals however may appear completely rufous in color, while others are darker. Wings are heavily pitted, characteristic of members of this genus, and the top of the head is relatively flat. Adult males are 7.9-10.8 mm long, females are 9.0-11.2 mm. (Hamilton, 1982)

Nymphs have bright scarlet abdomens bordered by black sides and black heads and bodies. The fifth nymph stage is dark brown. Wilson

Uncommon in North Carolina. Recorded across the state, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Pine or coniferous forests are favored, with herbaceous undergrowth for the nymphs. Has also been found in mixed hardwood forests and tall grass.Main plant hosts for the adults are red pine, Jack pine, and Scots pine, though the Saratoga spittlebug will also feed on white pine, pitch pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and northern white-cedar, usually from trees near infested red pine. Young nymphs feed on herbaceous plant species of the forest floor such as brambles (raspberry and blackberry), orange hawkweed, everlasting, aster, and many others. Older nymphs feed on sweet fern and willow sprouts. Wilson
Aphrophora gelida
Boreal Spittlebug
A striking spittlebug, this species can have a variable color pattern consisting of a combination of red/rufous, black, and white; this pattern can help differentiate this species from the similar Pine_Spittlebug. In addition, the wings are narrower and the head shorter compared to Pine Spittlebug BG. Wings and rest of the body are heavily pitted, characteristic of members of this genus. Males have divergent, finger-like plates. Adult males are 8.5-10.0 mm long, females are 9.2-10.8 mm. (Hamilton, 1982)

Nymphs of this species have a bright red abdomen and dark, blackish head.

Uncommon in North Carolina. This species has been recorded from several counties in the mountains; likely more abundant in the mountains in the right habitat.High elevation, montane forestsNymphs have been found on grape viens (Vitis sp.), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), and Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium). Adults are general feeders on conifers, including: pines (Pinus sp.), spruces (Picea sp.), tamarack (Larix laricina), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). (Hamilton, 1982)
Aphrophora quadrinotata
Four-spotted Spittlebug
A brownish species with four white/pale "spots" on the wings, two on each side, and black markings over the body, especially between the spots (forming a blackish "V"). The wings are evenly curved at the tips, more so than other members of Aphrophora, and are widest at the midlength. The wings are also heavily pitted, characteristic of members of this genus. The top of the head is relatively flat. Adult males are 6.1-8.0 mm long, females are 6.8-9.1 mm. (Hamilton, 1982)

Nymphs are yellow and brown. BugGuide

Recorded across the state, with a majority of records in the mountains where it is uncommon. Possibly more abundant in the right habitat. Eastern woodlandsForbs (any broad-leafed herb), such as goldenrod, grape vines (Vitis sp.), grasses; also alder (Alnus sp.), blackberry (Rubus hispidus), oaks (Quercus sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), etc. (DL), (Hamilton, 1982)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Aphrophora cribrata
Pine Spittlebug
The Pine Spittlebug has the most inflated face of any spittlebug, sticking out in front of the flat upper surface ("crown") of the head; this gives the spittlebug's face a swollen appearance and a pointed head, distinctive to this species and a useful characteristic to separate A. cribrata from other members of this genus which have rounded heads. In addition, the black and white wing pattern/markings are distinctive; the white marks are spotted in appearance and form a disjunct upside down "V" with an apex facing the head. Wings are heavily pitted, characteristic of members of this genus. Males are typically smaller than females, ranging from 8.8 to 10 mm, while females are 9.1-11.5 mm. BG
Nymphs are dark, with a dark head and thorax and a pale brown abdomen. Nymphs show the pronounced jutting head characteristic of adults.
Locally abundant in white pine woods, likely more abundant and widespread in pine forests.Locally abundant in white pine woods. BGPines (Pinus sp.), including Scots pine (P. sylvestris), Pitch pine (P. rigida) and White pine (O. strobus); also introduced Norway spruce (Picea abies). The feeding punctures of this species are frequently invaded by Scotch pine blight or sooty mold, typically leading to tree mortality. Native trees are more resistant to damage from this spittlebug than introduced tree species. (Hamilton, 1982)