Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Sanctanus fasciatusA boldly patterned species with dorsal markings that are usually light brown; the base color to the wings and body is a pale brown. The bold markings are primarily on the wings, with the thorax and head largely unpatterned except for some smudgy marks; there is a brown cruciate transverse band across the wings, bordered with black and white. The face has two distinct transverse black bands, and the legs are also banded; the vertex is bluntly rounded. The pronotum has a dark spot behind each eye on the anterior margin, and there are dark marks in the anterior corners of the otherwise pale scutellum. The male subgenital plates are broader than they are long, with rounded apexes. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin concavely excavated. Adults are 4.0-4.5 mm long. (Oman 1934), (DeLong & Hershberger 1946)Rare, a couple records from the coast, likely more abundant in this region.Recorded from a pine dominated forest near a saltwater marsh. ?
Muirodelphax arvensisAn orange to light brown species. Brachypterous males have an orange and black abdomen and two black marks on the scutellum. There is also a black spot on each side of the thorax, and the frons is completely unmarked. Brachypterous females are plain brownish-orange, lacking any marks; females also have a plain frons. Macropterous adults resemble brachypters in color and have clear wings.Uncommon to common (especially in the mountains), recorded across the state.Grassy, brushy areasAgropyron sp. (wheatgrass), Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass), Calamovilfa longifolia (Prairie sandreed), Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass), Agrostis sp. (Bentgrass), Festuca ovina (Sheep fescue), Achnatherum coronatum (Giant ricegrass), Carex scoparia (Broom sedge, Cyperaceae) (UDEL)
Homalodisca vitripennis
Glassy-winged Sharpshooter
A large leafhopper, adults are 11-14 mm in length and have a large flattened head. This species has a blackish head and thorax with white spots, and the sides of the abdomen are a mixture of black and white patches. Wing veins are reddish to brown in color; the base half of the wings have "glassy" or transparent wing patches while the other half is dark in color with red, brown, and black patterns. The face and legs of adults are yellow-orange. The underside of the abdomen is speckled black and white, and the head and thorax are yellow. Nymphs shape-wise resemble the adults, especially the head; they have a grayish to brown body.
For additional pics of adults, see Glassy-winged Sharpshooter.
Uncommon to locally common, recorded from a handful of counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the state in the right habitat.Found in grassy/brushy areas during much of the year, and hibernates in the forests during winter months.This species feeds on the xylem, the water conducting tissue, of herbaceous and woody plants. It has been known to feed on more than 100 plant species; preferred plants depend on the season and locality, but typically include crape myrtle, citrus, oak, Vitis, Hibiscus, and holly. GWSS
Xestocephalus brunneus
Brown Xestocephalus
A generally dark species, varying in color from almost black to brown to bluish. It has pale spots at the wing tips and yellowish-brown legs. The face is a warm brown color, and the rest of the underside is dark brown. Adults are 3.0-3.5 mm long. This species is smaller than the very similar X. piceus, which is 4.0 mm long or more (1).

For additional pics of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitatHas been recorded in mixed hardwood forest habitats.Willow, black Locust, honey-locust, walnut; also aspen (Populus spp.), birch and elm (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017)
Xestocephalus superbusA fairly small, dark brown leafhopper with a wing pattern similar to other members of this genus, mottled with white spots. The vertex is brown with many small pale-yellow or white spots. However, the middle wing tip cell has a white spot on the edge, with a dark base (this contrasts with the similar X. similis) (BG). There is variation however among individuals, so color pattern can be different among different individuals. This species also has parallel pale lines along the midline of the head that end in curved, diverging lobes. Adults are typically in the range of 2.5-3.0 mm long. Recorded recently from several counties in the Piedmont and coastal plain, but probably more numerous in the right habitat; where present, it appears to be locally common.Has been recorded in mixed hardwood forest habitat; also swampy meadows and grassy areas (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017).Sedge, trumpetbush (Tecoma sp.), willow (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017)
Graphocephala unidentified speciesMixed hardwood forest, open woodlands, grassy areas, etc.
Graphocephala teliformisA large member of this genus, with males 7.2- 8.5 mm long and females 8.0- 9.1 mm long (though longer individuals can occur). A majority of adults are green with two contrasting bold red stripes of subequal (almost equal) width. However, some individuals can have bluish-green (seldomly, bluish) wings with 3 contrasting red stripes; the outer stripe is typically thin and/or incomplete. The crown is yellow and the scutellum is yellowish to orange, while the underside of the body is yellow. There is a bold black line going around the side of the face between the eyes. (Hamilton 1985)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains, but probably more abundant in the right habitats; uncommon. Likely not to be found in much of the Coastal Plain.A common understory species found around the edge of forests; has also been found in the state within mixed hardwood forest. Adults are polyphagous, found on choke cherry and other woody plants (BG)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Graphocephala fennahi
Rhododendron Leafhopper
A large member of this genus, with males 7.3-8.6 mm long and females slightly larger at 8.2-9.0 mm (some individuals can be larger). Forewings are variable in coloration, being typically green with red to orange bands. Some individuals though can have the green replaced with pale blue; this blue form is uncommon to rare. Red wing bands are usually unequal in width, with the back band sometimes faint or incomplete, and there are typically only two bands; very uncommonly, there can be hints of third, outer stripe. The width of the red bands can vary and some individuals can have uncommonly have somewhat even bands that are a bold red color. In addition, there are prominent, clearly scalloped black markings around the wing tip; this is a key characteristic that can help differentiate among similar species, as the only other species that has scallopping this pronounced is the very differently patterned G. versuta. The top of the head is yellow, as are the legs and underside of the body (BG).

Nymphs are whitish to yellow in color but have the distinctive, pointed head shape of this genus.

This species has been recorded primarily from the Mountains, where it is common, and several counties in the Piedmont. Probably more abundant, especially in the mountains, in the right habitat and where Rhododendron occurs, but likely to turn up anywhere in the mountains and Piedmont, perhaps not as likely in most of the Coastal Plain.Has been recorded in the state in grassy, brushy habitat near forest edge, as well as in mixed hardwood forest itself; most likely present where rhododendron occurs.Rhododendrons and azaleas
Erythroneura cancellataA very distinctive species with a bold orange and reddish-brown color pattern. The dark brown outer wing pattern forms an inner diamond-shaped figure with red and white marks on the inside. In some individuals, the inside of the wings lack most orange markings, leaving most of the area white instead. The center of the scutellum is also white. The top of the head, pronotum, and lateral triangles of the scutellum are concolorous with the base of the wings and are reddish-brown; the wing tips are also dark. Adults are 3.2-3.4 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains where it is fairly uncommon; possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Cercis canadensis (3I)
Eratoneura hymettanaA species with a distinctive color pattern. The wings and body are mostly a pale, yellow to white color, but there are four dark faded marks (almost rectangular in shape) on the middle of the wings, forming an upside down U when viewed from above; these dark marks can be quite bold in some individuals, appearing black. There is an incomplete brownish band across the base of the wings and scutellum, and a broken band towards the rear of the wings, past the black marks; this rear band consists of red markings in some individuals, a smudgy band in others. The wingtips are also brown, giving the appearance of a third band in some individuals. The vertex is largely pale, with a distinct midline; the pronotum is almost entirely pale. Adults are 2.9- 3.2 mm long. (3I)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont; likely a very uncommon to rare species in the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat. Platanus occidentalis (3I)
Bothriocera maculataA dark species in this genus with a central bold transverse band across the wings that is blackish. There is a network of black lined wing cells near the tip of the wings that gives this species a somewhat distinctive wing pattern. This pattern, in addition to the relatively clear base of the wings above the dark band, outside of a small black tear-shaped mark on the side of each wing, can help differentiate this species from the similar B. cognita whose wing markings are typically much more intense and darker; maculata also only has the clavus embrowned along the inner margin. The body is dark, blackish in color, contrasting with the typically fulvousy orange/tawny color of the square-shaped head. The face is also dark, and the pronotum and tegulae are embrowned or not; the mesonotum is a dark yellowish-brown to dark reddish-brown. The legs are also fulvousy orange. Adult males are 4.2-5.0 mm long, while females are 4.4-5.2 mm. (Kramer, 1983)Has been recorded recently from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy habitat.Nymphs are presumed to be root feeders. Adults have been found to associate with: Spartina patens, Spartina cynosuroides (Poaceae, cordgrass), Juncus roemerianus (Juncaceae, needlegrass rush, black rush) (UDEL)
Agallia deletaA distinctive small, reddish-brown member of this genus with a small head; smaller than all Agallias except A. lingulata. Adults lack the head spots found on other Agallia species and are about 2.5-3mm in length. Males however, as in other Agallia, can be quite dark and appear almost black in color; this species also lacks bold, pale wing venation that other Agallias have. The female pregenital sternite has a slightly concave posterior margin with a very small tooth in the middle; otherwise it appears mostly truncate. The male plates are rather long and broad, tapering towards the apex. (DeLong 1948), (Oman 1933)A very uncommon species in the state, infrequently encountered. Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Found in grassy, field-type habitat; has also been found on lawns.Festuca lawn grass, clover, weeds, tall native grass, etc.
Agallia lingulataA small and robust species with a characteristic pattern, males can be up to 3.5 mm long while females can range up to 3.75 mm. This is a variable species, ranging in color from light brown to a quite dark blackish/fuscous color, with males much darker than females. There is a pair of large black spots on the anterior margin of the vertex (front of the head) that are surrounded by a pale ring, and a distinctive and characteristic pair of large black spots on the top of the pronotum; these pronotal spots are also surrounded by a contrasting pale ring. The elytra is smoky and the wing venation is pale to dark (dark in dark specimens). The vertex is almost uniform in length and width, and the pronotum is about 2.5 times wider than long. The pregenital sternite on females is very broad and truncate, with a thin median process extending downwards. Male plates are nearly triangular with the lateral margins slightly concave. (Oman 1933)Known currently from a couple counties in the Piedmont. Possibly more abundant in the state in grassy habitat.Grassy areasFestuca lawn grass, clover, other weeds
Agallia quadripunctata
Four-spotted Clover Leafhopper
This species is stout and robust in appearance and has short wings that are wider than those in the very common A. constricta: short and wide vs. long and slender. Adults range in color from light brown to fuscous to dark brown (but not necessarily black) with pale wing venation; males are much darker than females. There are four spots on the front of the body: two on the head and two dark ones on the pronotum (BG). Individuals have variable body color, ranging from light to dark brown. Adults are 3 to 4 mm long and 1.5 mm wide. The female pregenital sternite is truncate without any emarginations. The male plates are small and acutely angled, with convex lateral margins. Nymphs are dark, a combination of black and white, and they have small 'ear-tufts' above the eyes characteristic of Agallia nymphs. (DeLong 1948), (Oman 1933)Primarily recorded from the mountains, plus several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Likely more abundant, at least in the mountains, in the right habitat. Grassy, brushy field-type habitat, including weedy areas and agricultural fields (BG).Usually on legumes, like clover, and has been found on Liliaceae. Also recorded from Asclepias and Rubus (DL).
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Heliria cristataA very distinctive, stunning species with a double-lobed pronotal crest, characteristic of this species; the frontal lobe is higher than the back one and projects forward. Adults range in color from brownish to a light green color and have a very broad front of the pronotum, extending well to the side of the eyes. Previously reported from Eastern NC, though not clear where in particular (CTNC). Likely uncommon to rare with two recent sightings from the Piedmont and mountains.Where oak is present.Quercus macrocarpa (CTNC)
Alebra aureaMales are a vibrant yellow to golden-yellow color, paler towards the wing tips and unmarked. Females are yellow to orange-yellow, rarely colored like the male. The head is broader across the eyes than the combined length of the head and pronotum, with the eyes longer than the pronotum behind the eyes. The lateral margins of the pronotum are strongly divergent, and the wings/tegmina are at least four times as long as wide. Adult males are 3.3-4.2 mm long, while females are 3.4-4.5 mm. (Hamilton, 1995)Uncommon with scattered records across the state, primarily from the mountains and Piedmont; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed to open hardwood forest habitat.Primarily oaks (all Quercus spp.), but recorded from many other species including: hickory and pecan (Carya spp.), beech (Fagus grandifolia), hop hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) and hawthorn (Crataegus spp.). Also recorded in small numbers from Acer, Asimia, Carpinus, Castanea, Cercis, Corylus, Ulmus and Vitis spp. (Hamilton, 1995)
Prokelisia marginataA light brownish species with yellowish to hyaline wings and a pale thorax and face. The frons has dark brown longitudinal markings along the median and is widest in the basal third; it is about two times longer than it is wide. Adult males are 2.3-4.1 mm long, while females are 3.4-4.4 mm. (Wilson, 1982)Locally common along the coast where it has been recorded, probably found throughout the coast.Grassy, marshy areas with Spartina (UDEL)Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) (UDEL)
Alebra eburneaMales are a bright yellow color overall without any markings. Females are yellow to ivory colored with a pale tegmina. The wings are slender and proportionately long, but are less than 4 times as long as wide. The head is distinctly narrower than the pronotum and is slightly pointed, a key characteristic of this species. The lateral margins of the pronotum are slightly diverging at about a 40 degree angle. Adult males are around 3.5 mm long, while females are 3.2-3.9 mm. (Hamilton, 1995)Recorded from a single county in the mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat. Probably mixed hardwood forest habitat.Oaks (Quercus sp.) (Hamilton, 1995)
Catonia pumila
Dwarf Catonia
A small species with a variable mottled color pattern. The wings vary from being uniformly dark brown to highly mottled in color, with black, brown, and gray patterning, typically with two dark V-shaped bands; some individuals have a more uniform wing color and lack the bands. The frons and clypeus are a pale yellowish-brown, either unbanded and therefore somewhat uniform in color or having a median white transverse band. The pronotum and vertex are a pale brown, sometimes with a reddish hue. The underside of the body and the legs are also a light brown color. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Uncommon to scarce, when found there is typically only one individual present [at night]; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in and near mixed hardwood forest. Pinus sp., a variety of oaks (Quercus sp.), Carya sp., Hicoria sp. (O'Brien, 1971)
Catonia piniA mottled hopper with an orange to reddish-brown to brown color pattern and two dark brown curved transverse bands across the wings, the upper of which broadens laterally; the wing venation is marked with black spots. The frons is bicolored, being brown to slightly reddish-brown with a white transverse white band and a pale clypeus. The vertex and pronotum are reddish-brown to orange. Adults are around 5.0 to 6.2 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Rare in the state, though perhaps under collected; a few records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Baptisia tinctoria (horseflyweed, Fabaceae) (UDEL)
Catonia pictaA very colorful and distinctive hopper with reddish-brown to orange wings with a prominent grayish-white transverse band; the thorax and head are a vibrant reddish color. The underside of the body is orange-brown, as are the legs. The face is tricolored and distinctive, with the top black, followed by a white band, then black and orange-brown and finally another white band; the clypeus is a pale orange color. Adults are 4.4-5.8 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)An uncommon species that can be locally abundant in some areas; recorded from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Pinus sp. (UDEL); also reported from oak-hickory.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Catonia navaA dark and distinctive member of the genus. It is a mostly bicolored species, with prominent black wings with pale, grayish bases; the border between the gray and black is crescent-shaped. The thorax and head are mottled black and white/gray, and the underside of the body and legs are very dark. The face is very dark, with a prominent lower, broad black band, a bold white band, and a mottled upper dark section, paler than the lower black band; the clypeus is pale and mottled. This is a large species, with adults typically 5.8-7.2 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Scattered records across the state; possibly more abundant in the right habitat, uncommon.Has been found near and within mixed hardwood forest. Cornus sp. (dogwood), Platanus sp. (sycamore), Acer sp. (maple) (UDEL)
Catonia lunataThis species has a mottled color pattern, with gray, brown, and black wings; there is typically a U-shaped dark narrow band across the middle of the wings. The venation is pale with black spots along their length. The pronotum and vertex are mottled like the wings. The face is bicolored, with the orange-brown base contrasting with a broad white transverse band; the clypeus is also pale. Adults are 4.0-5.6 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Scattered records across the state, uncommon to scarce; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat near pines. Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry, Ericaceae) (UDEL)
Catonia cinctifronsA bold and distinctive multicolored species. The wings have a combination of black, white, gray, and orange coloration; some individuals lack the orange-brown aspect. The pronotum is black and orange. The face is black with two bold white transverse bands; the clypeus is pale. The wing and face pattern are characteristic of this species. Adults are 4.2-5.2 mm long. (O'Brien, 1971)Scattered records across the state, with a majority coming from the mountains and western Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat, but an uncommon to scarce species.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Pinus clausa (sand pine), Pinus sp., Quercus sp. (oak), Carya sp. (hickory) (UDEL)
Catonia bicincturaA dark brown and reddish species. The wings are mostly uniformly brown, with faint whitish patches to the outer edge of the wings; some individuals may show an indistinct broad white transverse band on part of the wings. The wing veins are pale with many small black spots along their length. The thorax is a bold reddish color, and the head is yellowish-brown. The underside of the body is dark reddish-brown, and the legs are dark. The face is an orange-brown color, with two bold white transverse lines. Adults are 4.2-5.1 mm long. (UDEL)An uncommon species, recorded across the state with a majority of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant in areas with pine and beautyberry.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and pine forest.Pine (Pinus sp.), Callicarpa americana (American beautyberry, Verbenaceae) (UDEL)
Catonia carolinaA grayish brown species with highly mottled wings that sometimes have a faint U-shaped transverse brown band. The thorax tends to be a fairly dark brown, and the wing veins are pale with small black spots along their length; the venation near the wing tips is bold, lacking black spots. The underside tends to be a pale brownish color, and the face is pale yellowish-brown in color. There are two pale white bands across the face: a typically incomplete band in the middle, between the base of the eyes, and an incomplete one along the edge of the clypeus. The clypeus itself is concolorous with the rest of the frons. Adults range in length from 3.1-5.8 mm. (O'Brien, 1971)Recorded across the state, with a majority of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; can be locally abundant where found.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, open forest, and forest edge.Thespesia grandiflora (Malvaceae; as Montezuma speciosissima), Inga vera (river koko, Fabaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) (UDEL)
Graphocephala hieroglyphicaA variable species, ranging in color from grayish-green or light blue to reddish-pink. The body and wings tend to be concolorous, and the wing venation is typically blackish though it can be reddish and appear as if the red color is bleeding into the wing cells. There are bold black lines on the wings, and black markings on the corners of an otherwise yellowish scutellum. The head and pronotum are concolorous with the base wing color but have black markings. The head has complex, bold, black and symmetrical markings on either side of a pale, unmarked midline; these markings are characteristic of this species. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated, convex triangular projection and is more than twice as long as the preceding sternite; it extends outwards. Male subgenital plates are long and triangular. Adults are 6.0-7.0 mm long. (Delong 1960)

A distinctive color form, var. dolobrata, is a very dark blue to blackish color with scattered pale markings. The extent of dark coloration can vary among individuals, with the head pattern characteristic of this species easy to discern in some specimens, while in others the head can appear more or less a solid bluish-black color with a pale midline. The clavus of the wings tends to appear as a bold, thick pale yellowish to white line that contrasts with the rest of the wing color; the costal margin can also be pale. The scutellum is similarly colored to other color forms of this species. Adult males are 5.5-5.7 mm long, while females are 6.0-6.4 mm. (Nielson, 1968)

The nymphs of this species are fairly similar to those of G. gothica; location can probably distinguish species for now, and it appears that the nymphs of gothica have darker-brown sides of the body.

Uncommon to rare; only recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont.Has been found in grassy, field-like habitat as well as wet depressions.G. hieroglyphica: Willow (Salix sp.) (DeLong 1948)

Var. dolobrata: Willow (Salix longifolia, S. amygdaloides) and poplar (Populus monilfera); has also been found on broadleaf milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) (Nielson, 1968)

Destria bisignataA plain, dull yellowish-brown species that is uniformly colored except for two bold, black broken marks across the edge of the vertex. The vertex is bluntly angled. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin largely straight, slightly produced in the middle. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow, tapering to to form pointed tips. Adults are 4.0 mm long. (DeLong & Mohr, 1937)

For more images of this species, see: BOLD.

Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat, particularly salt marshes.Salt marshes
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Eratoneura aesculiA yellow-white to yellowish species with a bold, vibrant red color pattern on the wings. The vertex has yellowish-orange submedial lines, with lateral branches that form circular shapes. The pronotum has a Y or V-shaped yellowish medial mark, and the scutellum is yellowish with slightly darker lateral triangles. About a third of the wings is red, at the bases; the reddish mark covers most of the clavus, typically with a small rectangular section extending outwards from the posterior part of the mark. There is a small, oval to circular-shaped white spot inside the red, in the posterior half of the pattern. The rest of the wings are yellow with white patches. There are two small black spots on the inner margin of the apical cells, but no black spot along the costal margin of the wings; there is a red spot at the base of the crossveins before the wing tips. Adults are 2.9- 3.1 mm long. (3I)A single record in the state from the Piedmont, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Aesculus sp. (3I)
Isodelphax basivittaA dark, blackish species with clear wings; the base of the wings can have a bit of a ruddy tinge to it. Both male and females are dark-bodied, though brachypters may be paler. The wings lack any dark spot at the apex of the clavus, around midlength of where the wings meet. The first antennal segment is dark while the second is contrastingly paler, a key characteristic. (UDEL)An uncommon to locally common species, recorded across the state.Grassy, open areas?
Erythridula noevaThis species has typical coloration for the genus, with bold red lines on the wings, thorax, and head. However, the mesonotum is typically a dark brownish color. The scutellum in particular is dark, being a dark reddish-brown color overall; however, the scutellum often times has a pale midline, resulting in a dark V-shape. Sometimes the dark mesonotum shows through the pronotum. Color variety 'parma' has a reddish "V" for the scutellum, with two small black marks confined to the upper angles of the lateral triangles. The face is pale, as is the thorax are pale except for the mesosternum which is dark; the abdomen is pale dorsally. The adults are 2.9 to 3.3 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2009)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from Wake county in the Piedmont; probably more abundant in the state in the right habitat (has been recorded from the TN side of the Smoky Mountains.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Black Walnut (Juglans nigra), Juglans sp., Acer saccharum, Carpinus sp., Aesculus sp., Acer pictum, Quercus imbricaria, among others (3I)
Eratoneura morganiA distinctive banded hopper. Adults are yellowish overall with two bold, dark brown to black bands that almost resemble a bow-tie in shape. One band extends across the pronotum while the other extends across the lower part of the wings, before the apical cells. The top of the head has two parallel orange submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The tips of the wings are a pale yellow color, and the orange markings on the wing and head darken to a reddish color as adults mature; younger individuals can be quite yellow. Adults are 3.0- 3.4 mm long. (3I)Has been recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; probably very uncommon to rare throughout the state.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) (3I)
Eratoneura bellaA yellow-white to yellowish species with a bold, vibrant red color pattern on the wings. The vertex has yellowish-orange submedial lines, with lateral branches that form circular shapes. The pronotum has a Y or V-shaped yellowish medial mark, and the scutellum is yellowish with slightly darker lateral triangles. About a third of the wings is red, at the bases; the reddish mark covers most of the clavus, typically with a small rectangular section extending outwards from the posterior part of the mark. The rest of the wings are yellow with white patches. There are two small black spots on the inner margin of the apical cells, a black spot along the costal margin of each wing, and a red spot at the base of the crossveins before the wing tips. Adults are 2.8- 3.1 mm long. (3I)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single record from the foothills of the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the state, especially in the mountains.Platanus occidentalis, Platanus sp., Quercus pagoda (3I)
Ponana rubidaBrownish overall, this species has symmetrical blackish markings across the wings; these markings tend to be dashes and oblong spots rather than dots and vary in both number and size, with some individuals densely marked and others only with a handful of markings. The pronotum is unmarked, lacking any small dots that are typical of other members of this species: this is a key characteristic. The vertex is broadly rounded, about half as long in the middle as the width between the eyes. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly produced and sinuate, with a shallow median notch on the other side of two slightly pronounced lobes. Adults are 9.0-10.0 mm long. (Delong 1948)

For more images of this species showing variation in wing pattern, see: BG.

Rare, only two recent records from the Coastal Plain and Piedmont but likely found elsewhere in NC since it has been recorded from nearby states.
Ponana scarlatinaBrown to yellowish-brown overall, this species the vertex, pronotum, and wings heavily marked with many small but prominent red dots; the red dots are characteristic of this species. Some individuals are extremely boldly marked, while others have very few dots. There is sometimes a black dot on the vertex near each ocellus. The wing venation tends to be margined with red, but some specimens can show fuscous wings; this is a variable species in coloration and pattern. The female pregenital sternite has well-produced and rounded lateral angles, with concave excavations on the posterior margin on either side of a broad median lobe; there is a slight notch in the middle of this lobe. Adults are 8.0-9.0 mm. (Beirne 1956), (DeLong 1948)Recorded from two counties in the eastern Piedmont and western Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Melanoliarus unidentified speciesMixed hardwood forest, forest edge, grassy areas, etc.
Cixius unidentified species
Unidentified Cixius Species
Mixed hardwood forest, forest edge, grassy areas, etc.
Eratoneura ardensA species with a fairly distinctive color pattern. Adults typically have reddish-orange or brown wing and body markings, though this can sometimes be a yellow color (the colors themselves are a result of the age of the hopper, with mature individuals being darker, redder in color). The key characteristic is the dark, almost black scutellum; this dark color often times extends onto the pronotum. Some individuals have a dark reddish-brown color pronotum that is still noticeably dark compared to the rest of the body; other individuals lack the dark color completely. The top of the head has two orange-red parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch (resulting in a circular pale spot to either side of the lines); the midline is pale. In individuals with a non-dark pronotum, there is a Y, V, or M-shaped mark; this mark is dark red, with yellowish-orange patches. The face and underside of the thorax are pale. The wing markings are not connected to one another. Adults are 2.7- 3.1 mm long. (3I)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded recently from a few counties in the Piedmont where it is very uncommon, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Elms: Ulmus alata, Ulmus americana, Ulmus rubra. Has also been taken from Caryata ovata and Ilex decidua, and Aesculus sp., among others. (3I)
Stirellus bicolorA very distinctive looking leafhopper, distinguished from other species by its very narrow head, with the eyes separated only by their own width (BG). This species is highly variable in color, with several different forms. The "summer", iridescent form has yellowish-green wings and thorax with noticeable bluish-black patches and lines. The head and thorax have three transverse black bands, and the face is black. However, some "summer" individuals can show faint or non-existent black markings. Other individuals can have a "stressed" appearance, showing the colorful body of the "summer" form but pale, almost transparent wings of the spring brood. A southern form, only occurring in the southern states, resembles the "summer" form except the wings are a solid bluish-black color. The "winter" form is brownish overall with some small black markings on the thorax and head. Depending on the temperature and time of year, some individuals can show traits of both "summer" and "winter" forms. Adult females can be distinguished from males, as they have an abdomen that extends far past the wing tips.

Nymphs are variable in coloration, ranging from reddish-brown to purplish to vibrant blue, with yellow eyes and the characteristic pointed, narrow head.

A common and widespread species in the state, especially in the Piedmont and coastal plain, it can be found year-round. Abundance in the mountains is less certain.Grassy, brushy areas such as fields; also forest edge and open forest.A general grass feeder, including Andropogon spp. (bluestem and broomsedge) (BG).
Rhynchomitra recurvaA green species that resembles R. microrhina except for the head. In recurva, the head is not at long and not as tapered as that of microrhina (which has a long, pointed and strongly tapered head), but not as short as that of lingula; recurva's head is stout and not strongly pointed. For a couple images of adults, see (here) and (here). Nymphs are supposedly darker than those of R. microrhina, being dark brown in color.Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat; very uncommon to rare.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Eragrostis curvula (weeping lovegrass, Poaceae) (UDEL)
Neocoelidia tumidifronsA yellow-orange to green species with a rounded head the strongly projects outwards; the antennae are also quite long. Males are plainly colored green (fresh specimens) with no markings except for, in some individuals, a prominent black spot in each anterior corner of the scutellum; there is also a black band near the tip of the abdomen. Females, green, have wings shorter than the length of the abdomen and have distinctive black marks around otherwise yellow eyes. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly excavated with a small median tooth. The males subgenital plates are triangular and pointed, gradually taper from bases to pointed apexes. Adults are around 4.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Uncommon to rare with only several scattered records across the state.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat; reportedly common in moist wooded areas where herbaceous growth is abundant (DeLong 1948)Goldenrod
Stictolobus minutusA hornless, brownish species with white speckling on the front of the pronotum. There are two pale lines following the ridge and edge on each side of the pronotum. Adults are 4.6 mm long. See FSCA for more.Rare, reported from a couple counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (CTNC)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Prescottia lobataA distinctively marked species, with alternating black and white markings along the inner margins of the wings, with two prominent white spots in the middle; the rest of the wings are largely blackish. The anterior base of each wing is white, giving a collared appearance to the hopper. The head and thorax are a pale yellowish-white color with brownish markings. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated posterior margin with a slight median notch. Adult male subgenital plates are slender and narrow with recurved tips. Adults are 5.0-6.0 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

Nymphs are reportedly similar in coloration to adults, dark gray to blackish with a distinctive color pattern.

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from only several counties in the mountains, likely more abundant in this region.Forest edge, open woodland, well vegetated areas.Solidago
Paraphlepsius eburneolusA very distinctive species with a pale, orange-tan head and thorax which contrasts with the very dark, blackish wings. There are some bold white spots on the lateral margins of the scutellum. The crown is produced but somewhat rounded and similarly long across its width; it is sharply angled to the face. The female pregenital sternite has a median notch on the posterior margin, with rounded lateral lobes; overall, the sternite is dark. The male subgenital plates are short and triangular. Adult males are 5.0-5.6 mm long, females are 5.1-5.9 mm. (Hamilton 1975)

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Scattered records across the state, infrequently encountered; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest, mixed hardwood-pine forest.
Scolops sulcipes
The Partridge Bug
This species is dark brown overall, with light brown legs and head. There is a dense meshwork of veins on the wings with white speckling, characteristic of this species. Adults are 5 to 7 mm long. The head process/projection extends well away from the rest of the body, giving the impression of a long 'nose' on this species. Nymphs are green.

For more images of pinned specimens of this species, see this page: UDEL.

Recorded from several counties in the mountains and western Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat.Convolvulus (bindweed), Solidago, Fleabane (UDEL)
Acanalonia conicaA green species with dense, reticulated wing venation; the wings can have a small yellow to brown border to them. There are 2 small black dots on the thorax, between the wings. The head is pointed, a key characteristic, and the legs are bicolored, being mostly green with brownish feet. Young nymphs (the first couple instars) have a white to light brown head with brown markings and pits; the body overall is white with light brown markings. The third instar has a body more heavily marked with brown, while the 4th and 5th instars have a body mottled with white, often with black markings along the posterior border of the metanotum. The head of the 3rd through 5th instars is pointed, appearing conical in shape (contrasting with the flat head of A. bivittata); when viewed from above or the side, the head is pointed, due to the face sticking out and having an angled or triangular, rather than flat bottom. Additionally, nymphs of A. conica are supposed to have green wing buds; however, adults associated with nymphs are needed to prove this and it does not appear that all nymphs of this species have the greenish tint. Due to the difficulty of identifying Acanalonia nymphs, an ID may not be possible. See W & M for more information and illustrations of nymph instars.A common species in the state, found primarily in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Has been found in grassy, field-type habitat, forest edge, and within mixed hardwood forest. Polyphagous (UDEL)
Arundanus rubralineusA species with a distinctive coloration and a broad, bluntly angled vertex that is about 1/4 wider between the eyes than the median length. The margin of the vertex usually lacks dark or white bands and is typically without dark markings; occasionally there is a black line on the margin. The vertex is only marked by a pair of broad longitudinal orange stripes, with two faint dark spots near the vertex tip inside the orange bands; these orange bands extends onto the pronotum, with a couple more smaller orange bands on either side. The female pregenital sternite is truncated/emarginate with a narrow incision in the middle that extends 2/3 of the way to the anterior margin. The male genital plates have broad bluntly rounded apexes that are divergent from one another. Adults are around 5.0 mm long. (DeLong 1941)A single record from the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Moist areas where the host plant grows.Cane/native bamboo (Arundinaria tecta)
Arundanus propriusThis species has a strongly produced, angled vertex with a bold pattern. The vertex margin is white, bordered below by a uniform black band and above by a series of black spots: there are three large triangular black spots separated from one another on either side of the vertex, with the central pair the largest. The vertex is slightly wider between the eyes than the median length. The male genital plates are long and narrow, bluntly pointed and divergent from one another. Adults are around 4.5 mm long. (DeLong 1941), (DeLong 1948)

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.

Rare; recently found in the Piedmont; maybe more abundant in the right habitat.Moist areas where the host plant grows.Cane/native bamboo (Arundinaria tecta)
Arundanus latidensOverall, this species is brown tinged with orange and yellow/yellow-green. The vertex is broadly, bluntly angled, about 1/4 wider between the eyes than at the median length. The vertex margin is white, bordered above and below with a dark brown to black line; the above line is continuous but waved and interrupted in the middle with a very slight white incision. The female pregenital sternite is very distinctive and different from other members in this genus, with a broad produced convex tooth in the middle; this tooth extends beyond the rounded lateral angles of the sternite. The male genital plates are long and slender and triangular, diverging from one another. Adults are around 5.0 mm long. (DeLong 1941)Uncommon to locally common with scattered records across the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Moist areas where the host plant grows.Cane/native bamboo (Arundinaria)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Chlorotettix suturalisPale green to yellowish overall, sometimes reddish, with a brown median line (this is sometimes barely visible). The vertex is bluntly angled and is a little longer in the middle than near the eye. The pronotum has the disc and posterior portion darker, and the basal angles of the scutellum are a dark brown. The wings are fuscous, with a dark fuscous stripe consisting of three distinct lobes. The female pregential sternite has the posterior margin broadly and deeply notched more than half way to the base; the sides of the notch are dark brown. The male genital plates are broad and long, narrowing cconvexly to rounded tips. Adults are around 7.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948), (DeLong 1918) For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.Only recorded from a single county in the mountains; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Most stream floodplains where cane occurs (DeLong 1948)Cane (Arundinaria tecta) (DeLong 1948)