Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cyrtolobus pallidifrontisMales are dark, with a blackish-brown pronotum with two white transverse bands and a white mid-dorsal mark. The pronotum is low in this species, with a minimal crest, and is actually lower than most other Cyrtolobus. The apices of the wings in both sexes are dark brown, and in females there is a characteristic dark band across the center of the wings. Females have a reddish-brown pronotum with some greenish-gray mottling, and the front of the pronotum is noticeably lighter in color (a useful characteristic distinguishing females from other species). Eyes are prominent and brown, and the ocelli (light-sensing organ) are large, reddish, and prominent as well. The underside of the body is a grayish-yellow color, and the legs are usually black (a key characteristic in females). Adults are around 5.8 mm long. (Kopp), (M. Rothschild pers. comments)Uncommon, recorded across the state with most records from the Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 29 April- 26 July (CTNC), with one atypical record in August.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and forest edge; where oak is present. Quercus alba, Q. stellata (CTNC); also on Q. rubra (CTGSMNP)
Sophonia orientalis
Two-spotted Leafhopper
An unmistakable species, nothing else in our fauna can be confused with it. Adults are yellowish with a bold dark brown to black longitudinal stripe, sometimes bordered by red, down the center of the wings along the commissure. There are two bold black "eye" spots at the apex of each wing, where there is some rufous color present. The middorsal stripe splits into two thin, parallel bands on the head and ends at a prominent black spot at the apex of the head. Nymphs are uniformly green or light-yellow and have a shovel-shaped nose, as well as a pair of small black spots at the rear end of the abdomen (CABI).Recorded recently from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, likely a recent arrival in the state and probably more abundant elsewhere as this species is expanding its range.Found in a variety of habitats, though studies have shown this species has a preference for wetter, closed habitats rather than drier, open ones (CABI).Extremely polyphagous, this species attacks more than 300 plant species in over 83 families; resident breeding populations have been recently discovered in ornamental, vegetable, and fruit crops in California (BG). For a larger list of host plants, see: PKB.
Alconeura macraA pale, creamy-white species with an orange-yellow color pattern. The vertex has an orange-yellow V-mark that is inverted from the margin; this mark touches the eyes and largely does not widen much as it extends towards the pronotum. The pronotum has four orange-yellow lines (two pairs), parallel to one another and extending across the pronotum towards the scutellum; the lateral pairs of lines are slightly connected at the anterior end and sometimes connected posteriorly. The scutellum is orange-yellow except for a small but bold anteromedian white square. There are two orange-yellow oval-shaped claval spots on each wing, one elongated mark on the side of the scutellum and the other in the middle along the commissure; when the wings are closed, the middle spots on each wing form an oval dorsal spot. There is an orange-yellow stripe that curves inward from each costal margin along the claval suture to the apical crossveins, meeting a smoky brown mark that extends from a yellowish-orange spot on the midcostal margin. The apical crossveins are yellow, bordered with dark brown; there is a bold black apical dot on the third crossvein. The wing tips are yellowish with some smoky brown tints. The underside of the body is yellowish. (Griffith, 1938)

For more images of this species, see: 3I.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain; probably found elsewhere in the right habitat, but likely uncommon to rare.Has been found in open forest habitat near a cypress swamp.Hypericum sp. (3I)
Neocoelidia tumidifronsA yellow-orange to green robust species with a rounded head the strongly projects outwards; the antennae are also quite long. Sometimes the tips of the wings are smoky, brown. Males are plainly colored green (fresh specimens) with no markings except for a black band near the tip of the abdomen. Females, green, have wings shorter than the length of the abdomen and have distinctive black marks around otherwise yellow eyes. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly excavated with a small median tooth. The males subgenital plates are triangular and pointed, gradually taper from bases to pointed apexes. Adults are around 4.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Uncommon to rare with only several scattered records across the state.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat; reportedly common in moist wooded areas where herbaceous growth is abundant (DeLong 1948)Goldenrod
Neocoelidia tuberculataA greenish to yellowish-green species with a distinctive, characteristic dark stripe down the wings along the commissure. The head is pointed, visible from above, and there is a distinct angle to the face near the mouth (visible from the side) (BG). The eyes are typically a bold yellow color. This species also has very long antennae, about the same length as the wings. The gemale pregenital sternite is broadly, roundedly produced. Adults are 6.0-7.0 mm long. (DeLong 1953)

Nymphs are greenish overall with a pointed head, resembling the adult.

A fairly uncommon species with scattered records across the state, primarily in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the state in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy areas, as well as pine and mixed hardwood forest.Pines (BG)
Graphocephala gothicaA pinkish-brown species, distinctive in coloration among hoppers in the region; however, there can be slight variation in coloration and some individuals can range in color from yellowish to grayish-green. There is an "M" or omega-shaped dark brown to black mark on the top of the head, between the eyes, that is distinctive for this species; there is also a small dark spot at the apex of the head (which G. hieroglyphica lacks). Some individuals though can have head markings that are not very bold. This vertex of this species is slightly narrower and more pointed than in G. hieroglyphica. The wings tends to be concolorous with the rest of the body; sometimes some cells are darker than the venation. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated, convex triangular projection and is more than twice as long as the preceding sternite; it extends outwards. Male subgenital plates are long and triangular. Adults are 5.5-6.0 mm long. (DeLong 1960)

Nymphs are mostly pale in coloration with dark-brown to blackish bands running the entire length of the side of the body; the eyes are also mostly black with some white speckling.

Uncommon to rare; some old collection records and a couple recent from the mountains (low and high mountains); probably more abundant in this region. Shrubby, grassy, vegetated, open montane areasWillow (Salix sp.)? (DeLong 1948)
Stictocephala bisonia
Buffalo Treehopper
This species ranges in color from orange-brown to [typically] green, and has densely scattered pale whitish dots across the pronotum. The pronotum itself appears 'boxy,' being noticeably high and large, a shape characteristic of this species. The leg color can range from greenish to dark reddish-brown. Nymphs are a spotted brown color.Uncommon with scattered records across the state, seemingly more abundant in the West. Seasonal distribution: 16 July-30 September (CTNC)Has been found along forest edge.Glycine max (CTNC)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Stenocranus vittatusThis species very closely resembles S. lautus and in some instances there may not be a way to differentiate between the two. Charles Bartlett notes that he is "not sure that the two can be consistently separated without tails, but there is some coloration difference" (pers. comment). Hamilton (2006) notes that in S. vittatus, the dorsomedial length of the hind tibia is greater than that of the hind tarsus, whereas in S. lautus the lengths are essentially the same. Furthermore, males of S. vittatus are 4.5 mm or longer while females are 5.0 mm or longer; adults of S. lautus are listed at being 5-6 mm long. See vittatus and lautus for comparisons of pinned specimens. See here and here for two probable vittatus individuals that show the hind tibia longer than the hind tarsus. As in S. lautus, the head is rounded and the face is dark with a pale midline. (UDEL)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont, likely under collected and more abundant in the right habitat, but probably not a common species.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.
Stenocranus similisA distinctive species that is sexually dimorphic. Males have fairly dark wings, with two main dark patches. Females only have one main dark patch on the wing, near the tips, and can sometimes lack dark patches all together, just having several dark spots. There is however a key characteristic shared among both sexes: the lack of a bold, contrasting white midline. Unlike other members of this genus, there is no bold white line down the vertex, thorax, and inner margin of the wings. There are several thin pale lines on the thorax, the middle of which extends onto the vertex; however, the two black marks on the tip of the head are bordered by the tan color of the head on both sides, rather than encapsulating a bold white line. This field mark can be clearly seen here. This species ranges in size from 4.5-6.0 mm (Beamer).

For images of pinned male and female specimens, see: UDEL.

Recorded primarily from the Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Where native bamboo occurs.Native bamboo: Arundinaria gigantea tecta (as Arundinaria tecta( (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) (UDEL)
Stenocranus ramosusThis species resembles S. dorsalis but is much smaller, being 5.0-6.5 mm long (Beamer).A single record from the Piedmont.
Stenocranus lautusA brownish species with a white median dorsal line. The wing venation toward the tips is dark, varying in width and pattern among individuals (see pics above). This species very closely resembles S. vittatus and in some instances there may not be a way to differentiate between the two. Charles Bartlett notes that he is "not sure that the two can be consistently separated without tails, but there is some coloration difference" (pers. comment). Hamilton (2006) notes that in S. vittatus, the dorsomedial length of the hind tibia is greater than that of the hind tarsus, whereas in S. lautus the lengths are essentially the same. Furthermore, males of S. vittatus are 4.5 mm or longer while females are 5.0 mm or longer, while adults of S. lautus are reported at 5-6 mm in length. See vittatus and lautus for comparisons of pinned specimens. As in S. vittatus, the head is rounded and the face is dark with a pale midline. (UDEL), (Beamer)Somewhat common to uncommon, though typically recorded in low numbers. A majority of records come from the Piedmont and mountains.Carex lurida, C. cumberlandensis, Cyperus esculentus, Cy. strigosus (Cyperaceae) (UDEL)
Stenocranus dorsalisTypically a pale species with minimal dark markings on the wings. There is a somewhat thin dark bar on the rear of the wings near the inner margin. There is a white midline beginning on the vertex, bordered by two black lines, and extending across the thorax down the inner margin of the wings. The male abdomen has dark/black markings on the venter of the genital segment, with the genital capsule brown to tan with dark markings. Some individuals can be very fulvous in color, lacking wing markings found on typical adults. These fulvous individuals represent what used to be referred to as S. pallidus but is now a synonym of S. dorsalis. In typical adults, the face is dark; in form "pallidus", the face is a reddish-brown. (UDEL)Uncommon across the state, recorded from all three regions; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open grassy areas, sometimes near mixed hardwood forest.Carex intumescens (Cyperaceae) (UDEL)
Stenocranus brunneusA dark species, with dark wings that typically have the M veins that strongly curve near the wing tips outlined in black as well. The amount of black on the wings can vary among individuals, and males are darker than females. This species has a dark, reddish underside of the abdomen and thorax. The face is black with a pale midline. See here for an exceptionally dark individual. The head is somewhat rounded and lacks the sharpness that other members of this genus have. This is a small species, smaller than other members of this genus, being 3.5-4.5 mm. (UDEL)

See here for a nice set of images of a pinned specimen.

Recorded primarily from the Piedmont, as well as from a few counties in the mountains and coastal plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy and open areas near mixed hardwood forest; areas with grass or sedge.Carex cumberlandensis, C. gracilescens, C. radfordii, C. pensylvanica, C. stricta, C. intumescens var fernaldii (Cyperaceae) (UDEL)
Stenocranus arundineusThis species is described as resembling S. dorsalis but having the elytra essentially lacking dark markings. The general color is buffy or fulvous, and the light median dorsal line is bordered on the pronotum and vertex with orange. It is 6.0-8.0 mm long. (Beamer)Recorded from the mountains; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Where native bamboo occursNative bamboo: Arundinaria sp. (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Stenocranus acutusA dark species with dark brown to black wings (black especially near the tips). There is a bold white midline stripe extending from the vertex, bordered with two small black lines, across the thorax and down the inner margin of the wings. The face is black with a pale midline, and the underside of the thorax and abdomen is dark; the head is noticeably and sharply pointed. Adults range in length between 4.0 and 5.0 mm, with males less than 4.5 mm long while females are less than 5.0 mm. (UDEL)Several records in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and edge habitat.
Jikradia olitoriaA highly variable species with a variety of color forms. Some adults have one or two pale transverse bands on the wings, varying in boldness among individuals, while other individuals are bandless and have solid-colored wings. The wing color itself varies from yellow to orange to green to dark brown to almost black. Females tend to have the bands while males tend to lack bands and be darker overall, but there is a lot of variation among individuals of the same sex and females can be dark and lack bands and vice versa with males. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow. The female pregenital sternite is [typically] strongly produced with a convex, rounded posterior margin with a noticeable slit in the middle. Adults are typically 5.5-7.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

Nymphs are highly variable in coloration as well, but have extremely long hind legs and a narrow head.

A fairly common and widespread species, found from mountains to coast. Found in a variety of habitats, such as mixed hardwood forest, open woodland, forest edge, grassy areas, etc.Polyphagous. Common on oak, sassafras, and similar vegetation (DeLong 1948); also reported from grape, corn, shrubs, apple, hawthorn, peach, willow, ash, etc. (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017).
Erythroneura reflectaA fairly distinctive reddish-orange and yellow patterned species with two color forms. In the most common form, the pattern on the head and thorax, which is yellow in color (sometimes with hints of orange), transitions and blends into reddish-orange markings near the base of the wings. The extent of red versus orange color can vary among individuals but there is usually a clear and noticeable transition in color. The top of the head has two bold yellow or orange parallel lines with a pale midline; these lines extend onto the pronotum before connecting, forming a long "Y" or "V" shape when viewed from above. The scutellum is concolorous with the pronotal markings, and the tips of the wings are dark. In the darker color form, the yellow markings have been replaced by red, resulting in all markings being a dark reddish color that contrasts with the bold white spots on the wings and body. Adults are 3.0- 3.3 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded recently from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains where it is relatively uncommon; possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Vitis riparia, other Vitis sp.; also Aesculus sp. (3I)
Erythroneura prosataA dark species, with reddish-brown to blackish wings (depending on the lighting, individual, and how the wings are being held) with no crossbands but instead large white spots: three prominent white spots along the costal margin (together with a blackish mark) and two spade-shaped spots (with smaller spots on either wing) along the commissural margins. The scutellum (specifically the lateral triangles and apex), pronotum and vertex are concolorous with the wings. The face is pale, and the thoracic venter has a dark mesosternum with the rest pale. Adults are 2.8- 3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, recorded recently from a couple counties in the mountains, notable range expansions for this species; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Rubus sp. (3I)
Paraphlepsius eburneolusA very distinctive species with a pale, orange-tan head and thorax which contrasts with the [typically] very dark, blackish wings; in some individuals, the wings can be a paler color, more grayish than the bold black color characteristic of this species. There are some bold white spots on the lateral margins of the scutellum. The crown is produced but somewhat rounded and similarly long across its width; it is sharply angled to the face. The female pregenital sternite has a median notch on the posterior margin, with rounded lateral lobes; overall, the sternite is dark, with blackish sections on either side of the median notch. The male subgenital plates are short and triangular. Adult males are 5.0-5.6 mm long, females are 5.1-5.9 mm. (Hamilton 1975)

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Scattered records across the state, infrequently encountered; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest, mixed hardwood-pine forest.
Bandara johnsoniAdults are orange yellow with six black dashes above the margin of the vertex and an interrupted line beneath. The posterior margin of the vertex, three stripes on the pronotum, two spots on the scutellum and numerous oval spots on the wings are white. The female pregenital sternite is "narrowed at half its length and produced to a roundedly emargninate posterior margin, which is rather deeply, narrowly incised at the middle to a slightly produced tooth on either side of the incision on the posterior margin" (DeLong 1948). The male plates are convexly narrowed to pointed apexes, together appearing triangular overall. Adults are 4.8-5.2 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and mountains; the collection records in the mountains are tentative since they were identified before the 1946 revision of this genus. Likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found in open habitat near mixed hardwood forest edge.
Bandara curvataAdults are orange yellow with six black dashes above the margin of the vertex and an interrupted line beneath. The posterior margin of the vertex, three stripes on the pronotum, two spots on the scutellum and numerous oval spots on the wings are white. The female pregenital sternite is rounded on lateral angles; the posterior margin is slightly emarginate, with a pair of short teeth in the middle that have divergent apexes. The male plates are tapered to blunt rounded apexes, appearing triangular together. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open woodlands, near mixed hardwood forest, grassy areas
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Forcipata locaYellowish overall, with a yellow to yellow-orange head, thorax, and the basal two thirds of the wings; the tips are hyaline. Wing venation is yellow. The head noticeably projects forward. Males has forcep-like subgenital plates with tooth-like and darkened/black-tipped apices, sometimes visible through the semi-transparent wings; the subgenital plates are also not notably much larger than the valve. The female pregenital sternite has a central produced lobe that is moderately narrow, with notches on either side of this lobe. Adults are around 4 mm long. (DeLong & Caldwell, 1936), (BG)

For diagrams of this species, see: 3I.

Scattered records across the state, from the mountains and Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely abundant throughout the state but under-documented.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Sedges and grasses: Carex vesicaria (3I)
Eratoneura complex 1
'Dotted' Eratoneura
These hoppers have an orange to reddish-orange dotted pattern on the wings. The top of the head has two parallel orange submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The pronotum has a U or V-shaped orange mark, and there are additional orange marks on the lateral margins of the pronotum. Adults are around 3.0 mm long.Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.See respective species links in comments section.
Erythroneura octonotataA yellowish to orange species with two prominent small black spots on the middle of the wings along the commissure. There are two yellow or orange parallel submedial lines on the top of the head, with a broad white midline in between. The pronotum has a Y to M-shaped mark, sometimes with the anterior margin colored as well. Much of the scutellum is black except for the lateral triangles; this bold black scutellum is diagnostic for this species, though in some specimens the apex of the scutellum is pale. The black mesonotum sometimes is visible through the pronotum. The costal margin of the wings has a small black mark in the middle, and the wing tips are smudged with brown; there is a bold pair of black spots along the inner margin of the wings near the tips. In var. rufomaculata, the clavi of the wings is a bold, bright red. Adults are 2.6-2.9 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

A couple records from the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in montane mixed hardwood forest. Rubus sp., Vitis sp., Cercis canadensis, Ilex decidua, Ulmus alata, Aesculus sp. (3I)
Oncometopia orbona
Broad-headed Sharpshooter
One of our most recognizable, distinct leafhoppers and also one of the largest in the state at 11-12mm (BG). This species has a mostly blue body with black markings; the color is typically a light blue, but some individuals can also appear dark blue. The tip of the wings are a solid dark, blackish color. The front of the head, as well as the scutellum, legs, and underside of the body are yellow. The nymph shares a similar body shape to the adults, especially the head. Nymphs typically have a mostly greenish body, especially the abdomen, with a pale head; the eyes are dark, sometimes red.Very common species, has been recorded throughout the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, as well as in the Mountains. A common inhabitant of grassy, field-type, brushy habitat as well as forest edge. Has also been found in mixed hardwood forests and pine forests.This species is host to dozens of plant species, including Silphium integrifolium and Catalpa. For a complete list of host plants, see this page: host plants. Has been found on pickerel weed before.
Erythroneura rubraA boldly marked species with a strongly developed red-blue color pattern on the wings and body. The top of the head has two reddish orange parallel submedial lines, with a pale midline between (characteristic of this species); the submedial lines are typically broad and bold, somewhat "L" shaped. The pronotum has a "Y" or "V" shaped reddish mark in the middle and a red bar on the lateral margins; the rest of the pronotum is pale blue. The mesonotum is mostly dark red. The underside of the thorax is dark, and the anteclypeus is typically pale, concolorous with the face. The wings have a dark orange to red color pattern that contrasts with a pale blue base. There are three blue marks near the middle of the wings whose outline resembles that of an arrow. The wing tips are dark. Adults are 2.9-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)
Recorded across the state, primarily in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; probably more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Vitis spp., Rubus sp., Ilex decidua, among others (3I)
Scolops sulcipes
The Partridge Bug
This species is dark brown overall, with light brown legs and head. There is a dense meshwork of veins on the wings with white speckling, characteristic of this species. Adults are 5 to 7 mm long. The head process/projection extends well away from the rest of the body, giving the impression of a long 'nose' on this species. Nymphs are green.

For more images of pinned specimens of this species, see this page: UDEL.

Recorded from several counties in the mountains and western Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat.Convolvulus (bindweed), Solidago, Fleabane (UDEL)
Graminella sonoraA pale tan species with four bold black dots on the edge of the vertex; the two inner dots are noticeably larger than the two dots at the apex, characteristic of this species. Adults are small, around 3.0 mm long or smaller. The combination of the coloration and pattern, together with the small size, are key characteristics for distinguishing this species from others in the genus; the wing venation is also more complicated than in other members of the genus, with more small cells. The individual male genital plates are triangular in shape, with sharp apexes that are divergent from one another. The female pregenital sternite has a moderate, rounded excavation on the medial half of the posterior margin, with a slight convex tooth in the middle and convex lateral margins to the sternite; the excavation is bordered with brown.

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.

Recorded from a few counties in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in a grassy, open area near forest edge.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Ponana pectoralisA variably-marked species that is typically green and brown. Adults have a green head, thorax, and [typically] outer half of the forewing. The vertex is broadly produced and rounded. The scutellum is typically pale brown with a whitish posterior half and rufous anterior corners. The inner half of the forewings and wingtips are typically brownish (ranging from light to dark brown), forming a distinctive brown streak down the middle of the back that widens towards the wings tips. There are some black dots, mostly scattered within the brown area on the back. The legs and eyes are brown. Some individuals though can have much darker wings; see here for variation among adults. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly but shallowly notched in the middle with lateral lobes. The male subgenital plates are elongate and rectangular. Adults are 8.0-10.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

The nymph has been reported as green with dark brown sides, supposedly characteristic of this species (BG). However, a Gyponini nymph reared to an adult P. pectoralis lacked these brown sides and instead was a dull brownish-green, with early instars uniformly dark brown.

Scattered records from across the state, uncommon to locally common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Woodlands, forest edge
Macrosteles parvidensThis is a highly variable species, with color (primarily on the wings) ranging from green to blackish to heavily patterned. The head pattern is also variable; adults typically have 4 bold black spots on the head, 2 on the edge of the vertex and 2 further in between the eyes. However, some individuals have a small spot in front of the inner ones (males), and others can have a black bar on the edge of the vertex that connects the median spots with an additional smaller spot on the side of the eyes. Furthermore, there are 2 bold black spots beginning on the scutellum and continuing under the pronotum, and an additional central dark spot can be present under the pronotum, between the other two spots. The female pregenital sternite has a small triangular median notch; the rest of the posterior margin is relatively straight. Adult males are 3.4-3.7 mm long, while females are 3.7-4.2 mm. (Kwon 2010)Several records across the state, seemingly more abundant in the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in brushy, grassy areas.
Texananus longipennisA large brownish species, with adults 9.0-10.0 mm long. The entire body and wings have a dense reticulated mesh-like dark brown pattern, extending onto the face. The vertex has a bold white tip, in front of a broken black band between the eyes. The female pregenital sternite has a narrow medial notch that extends between a third to a half of the way inwards; the posterior sides of the notch extend outwards slightly, with the posterior margin of the sternite weakly concave towards the lateral sides. The pregenital sternite is brownish with a somewhat broad blackish coloration near the notch, decreasing in width the closer to the anterior edge of this sternite. The male subgenital plates are relatively close to one another, with a slight gap between them; together, they are triangular in shape, with slightly rounded lateral (rather than straight) margins near the base.

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from across the state but infrequent, can be locally common; likely under reported and more abundant in the right habitat.Open grassy, brushy areas, open woodland, woodland edge
Texananus caducusA large brownish species, with adult males around 8.0 mm long and females 9.0-9.5 mm long. The entire body and wings have a dense reticulated mesh-like dark brown pattern, extending onto the face. The vertex has a bold white tip, in front of a broken dark brown band between the eyes. The female pregenital sternite has a broad V-shaped medial notch, extending about a third to halfway towards the anterior margin; the posterior sides of the notch end in a slightly produced sharp tooth, with the posterior margin of the sternite cocavely rounded towards the lateral sides. The pregenital sternite is mostly a light brown to tan color, with somewhat broad black coloration around the notch and along the midline, becoming narrower in size and extent the closer to the anterior margin. The male subgenital plates are somewhat close to one another, with a noticeable gap between them; together, they are triangular in shape but curve outwards near the base.

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded recently from Rockingham county in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; woodlandsHerbaceous vegetation
Texananus majestusA large brownish species, with adults 9.0-10.0 mm long. The entire body and wings have a dense reticulated mesh-like dark brown pattern, extending onto the face. The vertex has a bold white tip, in front of a broken dark brown band between the eyes. The female pregenital sternite has a broad but deep medial notch, extending about halfway to the anterior margin; the posterior sides of the notch end in a somewhat sharp tooth, with the posterior margin of the sternite cocavely rounded towards the lateral sides. The pregenital sternite is mostly a light brown to tan color, with some darker mottling near the notch. The male plates are close to one another, without a noticeably gap between them; together, they are triangular in shape.

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev. For more images of individuals that have supposedly been identified as this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Open woodlandsHerbaceous plants
Draeculacephala balliA small, short green sharpshooter with two small black triangles on its head and two small black triangles at the base of the wings, on the scutellum; these black triangles are characteristic of this species
(BG). The underside and legs are brownish, with the face ranging towards a darkish brown color. Adult males are 4.8- 5.5 mm long, while females are 6.0- 6.7 mm (Young 1959).
Locally common, recorded across the state with a majority of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, though probably abundant throughout the state in the right habitat.Grassy, field-type habitat; has also been found on lawns.Festuca lawn grass, clover, native grasses, etc.
Isodelphax basivittaA dark, blackish species with clear wings; the base of the wings can have a bit of a ruddy tinge to it. Both male and females are dark-bodied, though brachypters may be paler. The wings lack any dark spot at the apex of the clavus, around midlength of where the wings meet. The first antennal segment is dark while the second is contrastingly paler, a key characteristic. (UDEL)An uncommon to locally common species, recorded across the state.Grassy, open areas?
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Hymetta trifasciataA boldly patterned species that can vary in darkness. Adults have a pale yellowish-white body; the head and pronotum are largely a pale white color, sometimes with dull sanguineous spots present. The wings have a whitish base color, with three crossbands (see comments section below for crossband info). The first crossband is strongly narrowed along the costal margin; this band is quite dark and can have a reddish anterior border. The second crossband consists of a series of broken dark marks. The third crossband is the bold, dark diagonal lines across the apical cells of the wings. There are some scattered red dots across the wings, mostly between the first two crossbands; there are very few if any spots before the first crossband. The costal plaque is chalky white (the bright white rectangular mark between the two crossbands, on the costal margin. Adults are 3.0-3.5 mm long, with an average of 3.2 mm. (Fairbairn, 1928)

For images of this species, see: BG.

Rare but probably overlooked due to confusion with H. balteata. Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Vitis sp., Redbud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)
Hymetta balteataA boldly patterned species that can vary in darkness, coloration, and pattern. Adults have a pale yellowish-white body; the head and pronotum are largely a pale white color, sometimes with dull sanguineous spots present. The wings have a whitish base color, with three crossbands (see comments section below for crossband info). The first crossband is at most slightly narrowed along the costal margin; its posterior margin projects toward the wing tips, extending outwards past the dark spot near the claval suture of each wing. Crossband 3, the oblique dark band, is typically distinct. There is a transverse band at the apex of the wings (between crossband 3) that is at most indistinct; usually it is not present. There are three forms in this species.

- In the first, nominate form, the oblique band (crossband #3) at the tip of the wing is either not present or indistinct. The first crossband is dusky to black in color, darker near the costal margins. Crossband 2 is not present at all. There are relatively few red dots and flecks scattered across the wings.

- In form 'mediana' crossband #1 is a dark, dull red color (though in a number of individuals it appears as a faded brown). Crossband #2 is somewhat defined but not necessarily bold; it is orange to red in color. Crossband #3 is dusky to black in color. There are many dots scattered across the wings, including before crossband one and across the rest of the wing between crossband 1 and 2; there are also dots over the white costal plague.

- Form 'albata' is pale. Crossband #1 appears as a pale brown color; it is faint. There is no crossband #2, and crossband #3 ranges from smoky to a faded dusky color (but probably darker than the first band). This form was initially described as a form of H. trifasciata, which is probably the reason why this form has a strongly narrowed crossband #1 at the costal margin.

Adults are 3.1-3.4 mm long. Nymphs are a dark gray overall. For more pics of this species, see: BG. (Fairbairn, 1928)

Recorded from across the state, with most records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it can be common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Vitis spp., Toxicodendron radicans, Cercis canadensis, Hamamelis sp. (3I)
Pissonotus concolorA very dark species, dark brown to black; adults are mostly concolorous/uniformly colored and have shiny bodies. The antennae and legs are pale and the face is black. The wings are dark brown too. Adult brachypterous females are around 3.41 mm long. (Bartlett, 2000)Rare. Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Montane grassy areasAsteraceae
Pissonotus marginatusA dark brown to black shiny species which is sexually dimorphic. The frons is a light brown color, with a darker brown, contrasting clypeus. The antennal segments are a light brown. In brachypterous males, the wings are a dark brown with a thin white apical margin. In females, the wings lack the white apical margin. Macropterous individuals are similar in color to brachypters but have clear wings. Adult brachypterous males are around 2.65 mm long, while females are around 3.12 mm; macropterous females are around 3.85 mm. (Bartlett, 2000)

For more images of specimens of this species, see: UDEL.

Recorded from the mountains, probably more abundant across this region; also a record from the Coastal Plain.Montane grassy areasCarex sp. (Cyperaceae), Solidago sp. (goldenrod; Asteraceae) (UDEL)
Pissonotus delicatusA variable species, ranging in color from orange to nearly black. For brachypterous individuals, the tips of the wings are white; otherwise, the body is mostly the same color. There is a black band across the clypeus on the face. The first antennal segment is black, and there is a black line across the front of the second antennal segment; there also black lines on the front of the legs. Macropterous individuals have clear wings but otherwise the same pattern and colors at brachypters, though typically on the darker side. Adult brachypterous males are around 1.97 mm long, while females are around 2.45 mm; macropterous males are around 3.39 mm long while females are around 3.47 mm. (Bartlett, 2000)Reported to be a component of pinelands in southern temperate decidious forests. Likely to be found in grassy areas. (Bartlett, 2000)Grindelia squarrosa (Curlycup gumweed); Grindelia papposa; reported (but not confirmed) from many other hosts as well (Bartlett, 2000)
Pissonotus brunneusA dark, blackish species with pale wing venation (in brachypters) and no spots on the face. There is a thin white line that crosses the face, and the bottom of the clypeus is pale, as are the legs. The first antennal segment is black while the second is a pale brown. Macropterous individuals lack the pale wing venation of brachypters. Adult brachypterous males are around 2.25 mm long, while females are around 2.71 mm; macropterous males are around 3.23 mm long while females are around 3.50 mm. (Bartlett, 2000)Recorded from several counties, likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy areas. Commonly found in upland, old-field situations (Bartlett, 2000)Erigeron quercifolius (oakleaf fleabane), Erigeron sp., Symphyotrichum puniceum (purplestem aster; Asteraceae); Lespedeza sp. (Fabaceae), Agrostis sp. (Poaceae) (UDEL)
Pissonotus binotatusA variable species, ranging in color from bright orange to nearly black. For brachypterous individuals, the tips of the wings are white; otherwise, the body is mostly the same color. There is a black band across the clypeus on the face. The first antennal segment is black, and there is a black line across the front of the second antennal segment; there also black lines on the front of the legs. Macropterous individuals have clear wings but otherwise the same pattern and colors at brachypters. Adult brachypterous males are around 1.77 mm long, while females are around 2.36 mm; macropterous males are around 2.84 mm long while females are around 3.07 mm. (Bartlett, 2000)

For more images of specimens, see: UDEL.

A fairly common species, recorded across the state.Grassy areasMost easily found on Conyza canadensis (Canadian horseweed; especially in well-drained situations were the plant perpetuates, less often in fallow fields); also Eupatorium (thoroughwort) (Asteraceae) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Otiocerus wolfiiA pale species with a forked, dusky mark on each of the wings that extends from the corner of the eyes along the thorax. Small dark spots cover parts of the wings. The tip of the head has a black line, followed by a broad red line leading to the top corner of each eye; for a close-up image of the characteristic head pattern, see here. Sometimes the orange antennal appendages can be quite developed and intricate, as with this individual; these well-developed appendages can produce a "mouth" along the face when viewed from the side. Adults are roughly 10.25 mm long. (UDEL)

For more images of well-marked adults, see here: 1 and 2.

Uncommon, recorded across the state; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Probably mixed hardwood forest.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found on Acer and Fagus. (UDEL).
Negosiana unidentified speciesThis page serves as a placeholder for individuals that are possibly members of the genus Negosiana (which has improperly been treated as part of Prairiana for some time by certain sources). Until specimens are collected and identified, individuals that look like this (brown with dark brown to black mottling on the wings) will be placed here.Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.
Forcipata unidentified speciesYellowish overall, with a yellow to yellow-orange head, thorax, and the basal two thirds of the wings; the tips are hyaline. Wing venation is yellow. The head noticeably projects forward. Males has forcep-like subgenital plates that are black-tipped, sometimes visible through the semi-transparent wings. The female pregenital sternite has a central produced lobe that is narrow, with notches between the central and lateral lobes broad and U-shaped. Adults are around 4 mm long. [Description for F. loca] (DeLong & Caldwell, 1936), (BG)Scattered records across the state, from the mountains and Piedmont where it can be locally common; likely abundant throughout the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Sedges and grasses: Carex vesicaria for F. loca (per 3I), Carex leptalea for F. acclina (per 3I)
Erythroneura bistrataA boldly marked but highly variable species with a yellow or white dorsum with a reddish-brown color pattern. All adults have an entirely dark thorax except for a pale base to the scutellum. This species has four main color forms, and then variation in-between. In the nominate form, individuals are reddish overall with mostly red wings and two white patches: one at the base of the fissure of the wings, next to the scutellum, and the other near the wing tips; there is also a white mark on the middle of the costal margin of each wing. A color variety of this form is almost entirely red, with only the white patch near the wing tips and a small spot at the base of the scutellum. Individuals of the form 'stricta' have two white bands across the wings that separate a median dark reddish-brown saddle; this dark saddle has a dagger-shaped point extending downwards on each wing; this form also has a paler tip to the head. Individuals of the form 'rubranota' have three white spots replacing the upper white band on the wing found in 'stricta'; the spots are separated by a a bold reddish-brown band extending along the clavus of each wing. Adults are 2.9-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For additional images of variation among individuals of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains where it is uncommon; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Redbud (Cercis canadensis); also reported from Vitis sp. (3I)
Gyponana gladiaA reddish species overall, with red markings across the body and on the wings; the wing venation is red, and in boldly marked specimens the red extends onto the rest of the wings. There are eight longitudinal lines on the pronotum, and the wings are typically densely reticulated, with the reticulations extending onto the clavi (the inner region of the wings). Adult males are typically 8.5-9.5 mm long, and Gyponana females tend to be 1.0 mm longer (sometimes more) than the the range of males (Hamilton 1982). Very uncommon with several scattered records from the Piedmont and mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forests.Unknown
Erythroneura vitis
Grapevine Leafhopper
A very distinctive species that can strongly vary in coloration and pattern. It has a color pattern that can be a combination of red, green, or dark brown. The pronotum, mesonotum, and top of the head are largely dark reddish-brown, with this color extending onto the bases of the wings. The wings have two white wing bands surrounding a 'saddle' that is concolourous with the thorax. The wing pattern itself varies in shape, corresponding with three variations for this species. The nominate form has broad white bands, with the upper band having the outline of three circular shapes that are connected to one another; this form has red lines near the base of the lower white band. Form 'corona', the form most often encountered, has much thinner white bands that are outlined and often broken by red; the saddle in 'corona' is the largest of the three forms. Form 'flava' resembles the first form, but the white bands are much broader and therefore the median saddle is smaller. Nymphs have a saddled appearance, ranging in color from orange to dark reddish-brown as the nymph ages. Adults are 2.8-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species and the various forms, see: BL.

Found across the state, with a majority of records in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain where it is locally common; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Vitis riparia, other Vitis spp. (3I)
Balclutha neglectaA slender species that is light brown to sordid ivory in color, lacking distinct markings; the ocelli are pink. The face may or may not have oblique brown lines on either side of the midline. The pronotum frequently has brown longitudinal lines, and the scutellum usually has faint orange areas. The underside of the thorax and abdominal dorsum are dark; the wings are tannish. The head is as wide as or wider than the pronotum; the vertex is usually the same size in the middle as next to the eye, but in some specimens it may be longer medially. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin irregularly truncate or slightly convex, sometimes with a small median projection and with a heavily sclerotized band across the posterior margin. The male subgenital plates are small and triangular, with a tapering finger-like projection. Adult males are 2.8 to 3.8 mm long, females are 3.2 to 4.0 mm. (Blocker, 1967), (Knight, 1987)

For images of some specimens, see: BOLD.

Records across the state, though seems to be more abundant in the coastal plain; no recent records of this species, it is likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.Common in lawns, also found in grasslands, fields, marshes, etc.Grasses, though has been taken from a number of different plant species. See here for a list: plants
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Ossiannilssonola bereniceA mostly yellow species, with the head, pronotum, and scutellum a yellow to yellowish-orange color and the wings largely a light yellow to deep orange-yellow anterior to the apical crossveins. There is a transverse band of three black spots in a row in the apices of the inner three basal cells anterior to the crossveins of each wing. The apical cells are a smoky light brown color, sometimes with indistinct spots in the uppermost apical cells (cells three and four). Sometimes the black spots are reduced or missing. The abdomen has dorsal segments black medially, yellow to yellow-orange laterally and ventrally. Male subgenital plates are yellow. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba, Quercus sp. (Christian, 1953)