Hoppers of North Carolina:
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CICADELLIDAE Members: NC Records

Empoasca bifurcata - No Common Name



© John Rosenfeld- note broad white scutellar band

© John Rosenfeld- note bright green color

© John Rosenfeld- individual with some pale spots

© John Rosenfeld- note largely uniform coloration
Taxonomy
Family: CICADELLIDAESubfamily: Typhlocybinae
Identification
Online Photographs: BugGuide                                                                                  
Description: A bright green species with a golden-yellow head that is mottled with paler yellow around the ocelli. The pronotum is greenish with golden-yellow coloration; there are three large white spots on the anterior margin, one in the middle and one behind each eye. The scutellum has a broad central white longitudinal band. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The wings lack any spots and are a bright green color; the apices are not colored and the venation is green. The male subgenital plates are long, slender and pointed; they are slightly divergent from one another and curve backwards near the apices, unique for and characteristic of this species. The female pregenital sternite is rectangular, being wider than it is long; there is a very slight median projection. Adults are 3.2-3.5 mm long. (DeLong, 1931), (3I)

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Distribution in North Carolina
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Out of State Record(s)
Distribution: Throughout eastern and central North America, with a couple records in Central America (3I)
Abundance: Recorded from several counties in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.
Seasonal Occurrence
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Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Agricultural fields, field-type habitats
Plant Associates: Has been recorded in the state from Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Symphyotrichum subulatum (eastern annual saltmarsh aster), Vicia sp, Melilotus sp. (vetch, sweetclover), and Dahlia sp.; also known from Medicago polymorpha, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens, Aster sp., and others (3I)
Behavior: Can be attracted at night with a light.
Comment: The name "bifurcata" comes from the bifurcate anal hook, unique to this species (but only visible through dissection). There are several other bright green Empoasca species that resemble bifurcata and therefore an identification may not be possible without analyzing a specimen. An underside shot, especially of a male, might be enough to determine an identification since the male subgenital plates are quite distinctive and unique for this species. The first species below, recurvata, HAS been recorded from North Carolina; the rest have not been recorded here yet but very likely do occur in North Carolina.

recurvata- The dorsum is a green color; there are few symmetrical cream-colored markings on the head and thorax. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The pronotum lacks any dark markings and has three white spots, which may sometimes be fused, along the anterior margin. The vertex is strongly rounded and bulbous; it has a pair of pale green spots near the margin. The wings lack any spots and are yellowish-green. The male subgenital plates are long and slender with acute, upturned apices. Adults are around 2.75 mm long.

chelata- The dorsum is a pale green or yellow color, sometimes bright green with an orange tinge; there are few symmetrical cream-colored markings on the head and thorax. The crown lacks any pale spots. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The pronotum lacks any dark markings. The wings lack any spots. The male subgenital plates are pointed and divergent from one another. The vertex is produced and bluntly angled. Male subgenital plates are long and tapered to blunt apices. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly produced. Adults are around 3.0 mm long.

plebeia- The dorsum is a green color; there are few symmetrical cream-colored markings on the head and thorax. The crown lacks round spots. The face is pale, without any dark spots. The pronotum lacks any dark markings. The vertex is angularly produced. The wings lack any spots and are greenish subhyaline in color. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow with upturned tips. Adults are around 3.0 mm long.

Status: Native
Global and State Rank:

Species Photo Gallery for Empoasca bifurcata No Common Name

Photo by: John Rosenfeld
Out Of State Co.
Comment: male
Photo by: John Rosenfeld
Out Of State Co.
Comment: male
Photo by: John Rosenfeld
Out Of State Co.
Comment: female
Photo by: John Rosenfeld
Out Of State Co.
Comment: female
Photo by: John Rosenfeld
Out Of State Co.
Comment: female
Photo by: John Rosenfeld
Out Of State Co.
Comment: male
Photo by: John Rosenfeld
Out Of State Co.
Comment: male
Photo by: John Rosenfeld
Out Of State Co.
Comment: male