Orthoptera of North Carolina
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View Gryllidae Members: NC Records

Eunemobius carolinus (Scudder, 1877) - Carolina Ground Cricket



Micropterous female

Macropterous male

Micropterous male
Taxonomy
Family: Gryllidae Subfamily: Nemobiinae Tribe: PteronemobiiniSynonym: Nemobius carolinus                                                                                 
Comments: One of three species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cigliano et al., 2017), all three of which have been recorded in North Carolina
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Elliot and Hershberger (2006), Himmelman (2009)Online Photographs: OSF, SINA, Songs of Insects, BugGuideTechnical Description, Adults/Nymphs: Hebard (1913)SINA 533a.htm                                                                                  
Comments: A small, yellowish-brown ground cricket. The pale palps serve to distinguish this species from all other of our ground crickets except for Eunemobius confusus and melodius. The palps of confusus are a much purer white than those of carolinus and its coloration is much darker. Carolinus cannot be distinguished from melodius, however, based on coloration, but th two differ in terms of song, number of teeth on the stridulatory veins in the males, or on the lengths of the ovipositors in the females (Thomas and Alexander, 1957).
Structural Features: Members of Eunemobius can be distinguished from Allonemobius and Neonemobius by their possession of equal length ventral spurs on the hind tibiae and by ovipositors that have serrulations on the ventral margin of the tip (smooth in the other genera) and coarse teeth on the dorsal margin (finely serrulate in the other genera) (Hebard, 1913; SINA, 2017). Females can be distinguished from E. melodius by their shorter ovipostors, 2.6-3.1 mm in carolinus versus 4.7-5.4 mm in melodius (Thomas and Alexander, 1957). Males can be distinguished by their smaller number of stridulatory pegs -- 51-63 in carolinus versus 110-125 in melodius. Thomas and Alexander also note that the pegs in carolinus do not reach the ulnar vein whereas they extend beyond it in melodius.
Singing Behavior: Songs consist of continuous, somewhat buzzy trills. The most characteristic feature is variability of both amplitude -- with the trills getting louder or softer -- and in beat, with some sections of a song showing a strong, pulsing rhythm similar to that of maculatus and other sections without any obvious beat. At 76 F (= 24.5 C), the dominant pitch is about 6.1 kHz with a pulse rate of 76-82 pulses per second (SINA).

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Distribution in North Carolina
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

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Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Fulton (1931) describes carolinus as occurring in a wide variety of habitats but usually where the soil moisture is fairly high. These include riparian, bottomland, and mesic hardwoods; marshes; and bogs.
Diet: Probably omnivorous
Observation Methods: Most easily detected by song. Comes at least occasionally to lights, especially macropterous forms.
Abundance/Frequency: Widespread and frequently heard
Adult Phenology: Adults emerge in late June in North Carolina and persist until mid-November (Fulton, 1952)
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: GNR [S5]
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands
Comments: Eunemobius carolina is one of our most widespread and most often encountered species. It occupies a wide range of habitats, including suburban areas, and seems to be fairly secure within the state.

Photo Gallery for Eunemobius carolinus - Carolina Ground Cricket

Recorded by: Steve Hall, Bo Sullivan, Jim Petranka, Becky Elkin, and Rob Gilson
Iredell Co.
Comment: At beer-banana bait; only a few males were heard singing in an area where Velarifictus seemed partiularly abundant
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Orange Co.
Comment: Singing on the ground at 21:50, ~74 F. ~80 pulses/sec.
Recorded by: Steve Hall and Bo Sullivan
Ashe Co.
Comment: 69 pulses/sec @ 19:08 and ~ 73 F
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Chatham Co.
Comment: Several individuals were heard singing in a riparian strip along the Haw River; 66 F (19 C)
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Chatham Co.
Comment: Several individuals recorded in a patch of horsetails growing in a riparian strip along the Haw River; 66 F (19 C)
Recorded by: Stephen Hall
Orange Co.
Comment:
Recorded by: Stephen Hall
Orange Co.
Comment: Found in riparian forest on a sandy creek terrace
Recorded by: Stephen Hall
Orange Co.
Comment: Found in riparian forest on a sandy creek terrace
Recorded by: Steve Hall and Bo Sullivan
New Hanover Co.
Comment:
Recorded by: Stephen Hall and Ed Corey
Bladen Co.
Comment: Observed in pond pine woodland on the edge of a Carolina bay lake
Recorded by: Stephen Hall and Ed Corey
Bladen Co.
Comment: Identity confirmed by inspection of the stridulatory file and length of ovipositor
Recorded by: Stephen Hall
Orange Co.
Comment:
Recorded by: Stephen Hall
Orange Co.
Comment: