Habitats of North Carolina
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Upland Hardwood Forests
General Oak-Hickory-Maple Forests
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Habitat Overview This habitat covers nearly the entire range of hardwood forest in North Carolina, including those growing on dry uplands as well as wet bottomlands, on acidic substrates as well as circumneutral substrates, and with occurrences in at least two of the state's physiographic provinces. Bay Forests, Cypress-Gum Swamps and a few other types of hardwoods without significant combinations of oaks, hickories, and maples are treated in other habitat types.

Relatively few species of plants span the entire range of soils, moistures, and temperatures represented by this habitat type and only a few of the animal species are specifically associated with those plant species. The majority of the animals -- comprising the moths and other herbivorous insects and the nut-feeding rodents -- instead, are generalist feeders on oaks, hickories, and maples, whose genera span this broad range of habitat conditions. Other animals are generalist feeders on insects, including the birds and the frogs. One complete omnivore, the Box Turtle, also belongs to this group.

Related NHP Natural Communities NHP Natural Communities (Schafale and Weakley, 1990; Schafale, 2012) that contribute to this habitat include the following (leaving out the subtypes): Rich Cove Forest, Acidic Cove Forest, Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest, Basic Mesic Forest, Piedmont/Coastal Plain Heath Bluff, Cape Fear Valley Mixed Bluff Forest, Pine–Oak / Heath, Southern Mountain Pine–Oak Forest, Southern Mountain Xeric Pine–Oak Woodland, High Elevation Red Oak Forest, High Elevation White Oak Forest, Chestnut Oak Forest, Montane Oak–Hickory Forest, Low Montane Red Oak Forest, Calcareous Oak–Walnut Forest, Dry-Mesic Oak–Hickory Forest, Dry-Mesic Oak-Hickory Forest, Dry Oak–Hickory Forest, Dry-Mesic Basic Oak–Hickory Forest, Dry Basic Oak–Hickory Forest, Piedmont Monadnock Forest, Mixed Moisture Hardpan Forest, Swamp Island Evergreen Forest, Maritime Evergreen Forest, Maritime Deciduous Forest, Coastal Fringe Evergreen Forest, Calcareous Coastal Fringe Forest, Marsh Hammock, Coastal Fringe Shell Woodland, Pine/Scrub Oak Sandhill, Brownwater Levee Forest Blackwater Levee/Bar Forest, Brownwater Bottomland Hardwoods, Blackwater Bottomland Hardwoods, Montane Alluvial Forest, Montane Floodplain Slough Forest, Piedmont Alluvial Forest, Piedmont Headwater Stream Forest, Piedmont Levee Forest, Piedmont Bottomland Forest, Nonriverine Wet Hardwood Forest, Wet Marl Forest
Defining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankImperilment Score
HARDWOODS
Acer rubrum - Red Maple G5S51.00
Carya glabra - Pignut Hickory G5S51.00
Carya tomentosa - Mockernut Hickory G5S51.00
Cornus florida - Flowering Dogwood G5S41.00
Ilex opaca - American Holly G5S51.00
Quercus alba - White Oak G5S51.00
MOTHS
Acronicta afflicta - Afflicted Dagger G5S51.00
Acronicta exilis - Exiled Dagger G4S41.00
Acronicta haesitata - Hesitant Dagger G5S51.00
Acronicta hamamelis - Witch Hazel Dagger G4S3S41.27
Acronicta increta - Southern Oak Dagger G5S51.00
Acronicta lobeliae - Greater Oak Dagger G5S51.00
Acronicta modica - Medium Dagger G5S51.00
Acronicta ovata - Ovate Dagger G5S4S51.00
Acronicta retardata - Retarded Dagger G5S51.00
Anisota stigma - Spiny Oakworm Moth G5S51.00
Anisota virginiensis - Pink-striped Oakworm Moth G5S51.00
Blastobasis glandulella - Acorn Moth GNRS4S51.00
Bucculatrix ainsliella - Oak Skeletonizer Moth GNRSU1.49
Caloptilia superbifrontella GNRSU1.49
Cameraria hamameliella GNRSU1.49
Catocala amica - Girlfriend Underwing G5S41.00
Catocala connubialis - Connubial Underwing G5S41.00
Catocala dejecta - Dejected Underwing G4S41.00
Catocala epione - Epione Underwing G5S51.00
Catocala flebilis - Mourning Underwing G5S41.00
Catocala ilia - Ilia Underwing G5S51.00
Catocala lacrymosa - Tearful Underwing G5S4S51.00
Catocala lineella - Little Lined Underwing G5S41.00
Catocala micronympha - Little Nymph Underwing G5S4S51.00
Catocala palaeogama - Oldwife Underwing G5S41.00
Catocala vidua - Widow Underwing G5S4S51.00
Cissusa spadix - Black-dotted Brown Moth G4S41.00
Cosmia calami - American Dun-bar Moth G5S4S51.00
Cyclophora packardi - Packard's Wave Moth G4G5S4S51.00
Drasteria grandirena - Figure-seven Moth G5S3S41.08
Dryocampa rubicunda - Rosy Maple Moth G5S51.00
Dyseriocrania griseocapitella - Chinquapin Leaf-miner Moth GNRS2S41.49
Euthyatira pudens - Dogwood Thyatirid Moth G5S41.00
Heterocampa obliqua - Oblique Heterocampa G5S51.00
Heterocampa umbrata - White-blotched Heterocampa G5S51.00
Hypena baltimoralis - Baltimore Bomolocha G5S51.00
Hyperstrotia secta - Black-patched Graylet Moth G5S51.00
Lytrosis unitaria - Common Lytrosis Moth G5S51.00
Macaria aemulataria - Common Angle G5S51.00
Macrurocampa marthesia - Mottled Prominent G5S51.00
Meganola minuscula - Confused Meganola G5S51.00
Meganola phylla - Coastal Plain Meganola GNRS51.00
Meganola spodia - Ashy Meganola G5S41.00
Nola triquetrana - Three-spotted Nola G5S41.00
Olethreutes hamameliana GNRSU1.49
Oligocentria lignicolor - White-streaked Prominent G5S51.00
Panopoda rufimargo - Red-lined Panopoda Moth G5S51.00
Paraeschra georgica - Georgian Prominent G5S51.00
Parallelia bistriaris - Maple Looper G5S51.00
Peridea angulosa - Angulose Prominent G5S51.00
Phoberia atomaris - Common Oak Moth G5S51.00
Psaphida grandis - Gray Sallow G4S3S41.27
Psaphida resumens - Figure-Eight Sallow GNRS41.00
Psaphida rolandi - Roland's Sallow G5S41.00
Psaphida thaxterianus - Thaxter's Sallow G4S3S41.27
Speranza pustularia - Lesser Maple Spanworm Moth G5S51.00
Symmerista albifrons - White-headed Prominent G5S51.00
Symmerista canicosta - Red-humped Oakworm Moth G5S41.00
FORBS
Amorpha schwerinii - Piedmont Indigo-bush G3G4S31.90
Chimaphila maculata - Spotted Wintergreen G5S51.00
Goodyera pubescens - Downy Rattlesnake-plantain G5S51.00
Hexastylis arifolia - Little Brown Jug G5S51.00
Hexastylis lewisii - Lewis's Heartleaf G3S37.80
Hexastylis minor - Little Heartleaf G4G5S41.00
Hexastylis virginica - Virginia Heartleaf G4SNR
Hieracium venosum - Rattlesnake Hawkweed G5S51.00
Hylodesmum nudiflorum - Naked Tick-trefoil G5S51.00
Pyrola americana - American Wintergreen G5S2S32.06
Sanicula canadensis - Canadian Black-snakeroot G5S51.00
Tipularia discolor - Cranefly Orchid G5S51.00
BIRDS
Antrostomus vociferus - Eastern Whip-poor-will G5S41.00
Coccyzus americanus - Yellow-billed Cuckoo G5S51.00
Dryobates pubescens - Downy Woodpecker G5S51.00
Dryobates villosus - Hairy Woodpecker G5S41.00
Hylocichla mustelina - Wood Thrush G4S41.00
Piranga olivacea - Scarlet Tanager G5S51.00
Polioptila caerulea - Blue-gray Gnatcatcher G5S51.00
Seiurus aurocapilla - Ovenbird G5S51.00
Setophaga citrina - Hooded Warbler G5S51.00
Sitta carolinensis - White-breasted Nuthatch G5S51.00
Vireo flavifrons - Yellow-throated Vireo G5S41.00
Vireo olivaceus - Red-eyed Vireo G5S51.00
HEMIPTERAN HOPPERS
Archasia auriculata
Archasia pallida
Cyrtolobus arcuatus
Cyrtolobus auroreus
Cyrtolobus dixianus
Cyrtolobus fenestratus
Cyrtolobus flavolatus
Cyrtolobus fuliginosus
Cyrtolobus fuscipennis
Cyrtolobus griseus
Cyrtolobus maculifrontis
Cyrtolobus pallidifrontis
Cyrtolobus togatus
Cyrtolobus tuberosus
Cyrtolobus vau
Empoa casta
Empoa rubricola
Eratoneura era
Eratoneura osborni
Eratoneura stephensoni
Eratoneura stoveri
Eutettix pictus
Glossonotus univittatus
Ophiderma definita
Ophiderma evelyna
Ophiderma flavicephala
Ophiderma pubescens
Ophiderma salamandra
Ossiannilssonola australis
Ossiannilssonola berenice
Ossiannilssonola tunicarubra
Penthimia americana
Rugosana querci
Smilia fasciata
Telamona projecta
Telamona reclivata
ORTHOPTERANS
Cyrtoxipha columbiana - Columbian Trig GNRS51.00
Microcentrum retinerve - Lesser Angle-Wing GNRS51.00
Microcentrum rhombifolium - Greater Angle-Wing GNRS4S51.00
Oecanthus exclamationis - Davis's Tree Cricket GNRS4S51.00
Oecanthus niveus - Narrow-Winged Tree Cricket GNRS51.00
Pterophylla camellifolia - Common True Katydid GNRS51.00
MAMMALS
Glaucomys volans - Southern Flying Squirrel G5S51.00
Peromyscus leucopus - White-footed Deermouse G5S51.00
Sciurus carolinensis - Eastern Gray Squirrel G5S51.00
Tamias striatus - Eastern Chipmunk G5S51.00
SHRUBS
Hamamelis virginiana - American Witch-hazel G5S51.00
Nestronia umbellula - Nestronia G4S31.75
Viburnum acerifolium - Mapleleaf Viburnum G5S51.00
FROGS
Hyla chrysoscelis - Cope's Gray Treefrog G5S51.00
Pseudacris feriarum - Upland Chorus Frog G5S51.00
TURTLES
Terrapene carolina - Eastern Box Turtle G5S51.00
Sum: 115.85
Average of 103: 1.12

Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Quercus alba/Acronicta exilis-Acronicta haesitata-Acronicta modica) // (Quercus species/Acronicta afflicta-Acronicta lobeliae-Bucculatrix ainsliella-Anisota virginiensis-Catocala amica-Catocala connubialis-Catocala ilia-Catocala lineella-Catocala micronympha-Cissusa spadix) // (Fagaceae species/Acronicta increta-Acronicta ovata) // (Carya species/Catocala dejecta-Catocala epione-Catocala lacrymosa-Catocala palaeogama-Catocala vidua) // (Juglandaceae species/Catocala flebilis) // (Acer species/Acronicta retardata-Dryocampa rubicunda-Macaria aemulataria-Parallelia bistriaris-Speranza pustularia) // (Hamamelis virginiana/Acronicta hamamelis-Cameraria hamameliella-Caloptilia superbifrontella-Drasteria grandirena-Nola triquetrana-Olethreutes hamameliana)

Candidates for Inclusion
Habitat Sub-sets
Distribution Map
Distribution
Survey Coverage Map
Survey Coverage
Survey Priorities
Average Imperilment of Habitat Members
Habitat Conservation Status
High Quality Habitat Occurrence Table
High Quality Habitat Occurrences
Protected Habitat Occurrences
Threats and Trends
Status Summary
Stewardship Recommendations
References
Updated on 2019-10-22 11:58:35

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